Kiev National university of Culture and Art
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
teaching rhymes, students of philological department, communicative competence, creative writing, creative translation, communicative strategies
Many scientists claim that rhymes are a very effective tool in teaching foreign languages. It is proved that such creative classes may improve student`s vocabulary and rise the level of foreign communicative competence in general. The scientific research testifies that rhymes usage and their learning assist memorizing of numerous new words, improve the level of communicative competence. Creative translations and personal writing of songs by students-philologists, the system of individually developed pre-writing tasks will assist the memorizing of new words, their contextual usage and imprinting after certain communicative intentions. On the basis of these results and researches it has been worked out the special course of "Creative Writing" by the author and numerous creative exercises and tasks for professional foreign communicative strategies formation by means of creative translation.
Introduction Without regard to the active use of the rhymed texts in practice of learning foreign languages, methodology of their application remains, as justly marks S. Gaponova, quiet monotonous. As a rule, activities with the rhymed texts are limited to their learning by heart or some repitativness. Methodology with translations and individual songs written by students-philologists is not studied yet for today. Based on the personal experiment O. Parshykova claims that rhyming texts (first of all songs and poems) create the atmosphere of communicative interaction. It is related to that rhyming texts: - create the positive emotional atmosphere because of aesthetic satisfaction for how they sound and in relation to this motivate while learning the foreign language; - enhance the socializing, attach feeling for being together, integrated development; - help to prepare articulation organs on a new language; - Provide an excellent material for stable hearing-speaking skills formation, develop the rhyme feeling, musical and phonematic hearing; - introduce with the foreign culture of the language which is learnt; - provide the contextual learning of the new words, easy and simultaneously effective memorizing of foreign material, and also the possibility of immediate review; - provide such way of communicative quality of foreign speaking formation as clarity and appeal. As a result the language and speech materials for songs are not used in broadcasting, during individual reflexive creative essays writing. Methods With the aim of educational material selection we undertook a special study during internship in the USA in 2011 at California university and at the university of city Louisville, state Kentucky under the direction of professor Thomas Byers and at London school of English in 2008. On the basis of these results and researches we worked out the special course of "Creative Writing" and the great quantity of creative exercises and tasks for professional communicative strategies formation by means of creative translation. For mastering the lexical material on the preparatory stage to writing creative translations and actually songs we worked out exercises and creative tasks that consist of sub-groups of exercises for development of students` abilities in the communicative strategies usage: 1) compatibility of words; 2) dictionary formation; 3) keywords; 4) logical copulas; 5) features of rhymes creation; 6) mind maps. Realization of the first four communicative strategies we carried out by means of reception introduction with a plot story during our experimental studies. Reception of a plot story technique with the aim of new vocabulary improvement by students in a context worked out on the basis of well-known method of "storytelling", "narrative approach", "storyline approach" that tested considerable distribution in 80-90th of the twentieth century (S. Bell, W. Benjamin, K. Egan, E. Garvie, K. Hellwig, D. Kirsch, A. Kubanek - German, H.E. Piepho and others). The story is interpreted as a recital of the teacher of the real or invented events with the use of new vocabulary. Application of stories in the studies of foreign languages assists to development of memory, thinking, imagination, fantasy, capacities formation for a creative self-expression. Perception of stories by ear, their next interpretation and reconstruction (recreation) under the teacher’s direction serve to the improvement of communication skills and abilities, realization of mainline development. Results Farther we’ll consider such strategy as features of rhymes creation, that is possible on condition of creative exercises implementation which are stated below: Task 1. Rhyming Expressions A number of common colloquial expressions consist of rhyming parts. Put each of the following expressions in its correct place in the sentences below. big-wigs pell-mell higgledy-piggledy brain-drain nitty-gritty prime-time hum-drum culture-vulture (a) We’ve got some important visitors coming to see the factory tomorrow. They’re government inspectors, Members of Parliament, officials from the Ministry and other . (a) The programme is only of limited interest. I can’t understand why it’s shown on television. (b) The two world leaders met and after the usual greetings and formalities got down to the _ of their talks. (c) He goes to all the new plays, reads the new novels, loves art and ballet. He’s a real _. (d) After the robbery everything was in a mess, _, all over the place. (e) She’d like to find a more interesting, exciting job. She finds her present work very _. (f) It’s been a terrible morning. I overslept, rushed out to the bus-stop, missed the bus, had to get a taxi ... (h) The_ of doctors, scientists and academics leaving this country is having a serious effect on our health service, industries and universities. 2. Instructions as above. silly-billy hanky-panky space-race walkie-talkie mumbo-jumbo willy-nilly fun-run roly-poly (a)_ A policeman usually carries a so that he can keep in touch with his police-station. (b)_ 5,000 people are taking part in a five-mile on Sunday to raise money for charity. (c)_ You’ve put on weight. You’re getting quite . (d) Oh, I am a. I’ve bought salt and I meant to buy sugar. (d) The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in the field of rockets and inter-planetary exploration is often called the _. (e) She did not believe in having a religious wedding and considered the church service to be just a lot of _. (f) In the army you don’t have much choice where to go. You’re sent where you’re needed _. (g) There have been accusations of illegalities, suspicious irregularities and other _ during the elections. There’s going to be an inquiry. 3. Instructions above. wine and dine moan and groan meals-on-wheels wear and tear la-di-da make or break (a) Old people who cannot cook for themselves easily are entitled to use the _ service. (a) This is Wayne Smith’s last chance to show if he is good enough for the football team. It’s_ day for him. (b) She was very affected in her accent and manner. Most people thought she was very _. (c) After twelve years it’s only natural that your furniture is showing signs of _. (e) Come to the best restaurant in town, where you can in style. (e) If you find so much to complain about in your job, either do something about it or resign. Don’t just. Answers: 1. a) big-wigs; b) prime-time; c) nitty-gritty; d) culture-vulture; e) higgledy-piggledy; f) humdrum; g) pell-mell; h) brain-drain. 2. a) walkie-talkie; b) fun-run; c) roly-poly; d) silly-billy; e) space-race; f) mumbo-jumbo; g) willy-nilly; h) hanky-panky. 3. a) meals-on-wheels; b) make or break; c) la-di-da; d) wear and tear; e) wine and dine; f) moan and groan. Task 2. Listening for Rhymes A poet may create a sound pattern with rhyme. Some poems have pairs of rhyming lines. These lines are called rhyming couplets. In a rhyming couplet the last words in the lines rhyme. Take turns reading the poem aloud. Listen for the rhyming couplets. Pick Me Up Pick me up with a pile of blocks And carry me past the Cuckoo Clocks! Pick me up with a pile of hay And carry me off to Buzzards Bay! Pick me up with a pile of snow And carry me out to Idaho! Pick me up with a pile of twine And carry me down to the Argentine! Pick me up with a pile of lava And carry me over the hills of Java. Pick me up with a pile of sand And put me down in Newfoundland. William Jay Smith - Look at the poem. Write two pairs of rhyming words from the poem. - Choose a rhyming couplet from the poem. Draw a picture to go with the two lines. Write the rhyming couplet on your picture. Circle the rhyming words. Here is the example of picture for the following rhymes Pick me up with a pile of lava And carry me over the hills of Java. - Write your own rhyming couplet for the poem. What would you take with you? Where would you go? Pick me up with a _ And put me down in _ Task 3. A Poem Mobile Make a poem mobile. 1. Find a poem you like. It can be one you wrote. 2. Write each line on a piece of heavy paper. 3. Cut the paper into a shape that goes with the poem or the line. 4. Hang the lines from a hanger. Here is what Ann did with a poem she wrote. One scarf, One hat Usually will do. But for mittens and boots, You’re warmer with two! Ann Poole Task 4. Write a word in ( ) to finish each rhyme. It’s cool To jump in a _. (pool, lake) How neat To wipe your _. (hands, feet) Write your own words to finish the poem below. Use a rhyming word at the end. Listen to the cool wind blow. See the little flakes of snow. Wear your hat and coat today. _ . Based on the reception of phonetic associations technique, described in the next section, it is needed to pick up already the known words to unknown with a purpose of remembering them, mastering and memorizing. For of example: Huddle Puddle Swarm Warm Throng Rong. Words in bold are unknown for a student, he tries to memorize them by associations with the already known words. For example: Huddle Puddle Swarm Warm Throng Rong Task. Missing Letters Подпись: IEMake words by adding one letter in each circle. Answers: peach, reach, teach bone, done, gone, tone, zone came, fame, game, name, same, tame bill, fill, hill, kill, pill, till, will On the preparatory stage to creative essays writing by the students, we offer stimulating prewriting activity/technique, which consists in that students read and analyze the classic poems of the known poets, which are the professional standards of the classics, which can inspire them on creation of their own masterpieces. Detailed tasks to them are given in the book of Koch Kenneth “Rose, Where Did you Get That Red?” . Such tasks will stimulate students to personal creative writing. We suggest In-Class Writing Questions, which force students to creative writing: - Write a poem or prose piece using only questions, or mostly questions. - Consider different organizing strategies: a) your questions might all be asked to one particular object, animal, person, idea, place, etc. b) your questions might be asked to a general audience but all be about one particular object, animal, person, idea, place, etc. c) your questions might suggest a story, leading readers through a series of events, following one or more characters through a particular setting, d) your questions might each be followed by an answer, which in turn leads to another question, e) your questions might relate to each other randomly, or only through sound or metaphor; that is, the distance you travel between each question could be what holds them together. Step 1: Choose an organizing strategy above, or make up your own; jot notes (2-3 min). Step 2: Write the poem or prose piece (13 min). 1) Self-portrait. Imagine writing yourself as a visual artist would draw, paint, sculpt, or photograph herself. You could focus on physical details, as if seen in a mirror, but also consider including mental formations (memories, observations, thoughts, misunderstandings, gossip). 2) Condensed Autobiography. A quick overview of your life featuring a handful of vivid, specific images or moments from early childhood up to the present. Let the structure of the poem occur organically, without the need for linear progression through time. 3) Exaggerated You. Write with the voice of a magnified emotion or mood you’ve experienced by focusing on the specific, physical details in which that emotion/mood occurred. Think of this voice as a cartoon version of yourself but not so cartoonish that readers can’t believe it. 4) Persona. Write in the first person (“I”/”we”) but from the point of view of someone or something that you are not. Take on the persona of an object, an idea, a place, an animal, a famous/infamous person, an unusual person, etc. 5) Memory games. Write about a specific memory from your past, but present it in some unexpected way, or write about several unrelated memories as if they were related. 6) Letter to Yourself. Write a letter to yourself, either from yourself or from an imagined other person. What can you reveal or conceal about yourself as the primary audience of this letter? 7) Speculative Scenes. Describe a scene from your past life which you were not fully conscious of, such as your own birth, or a scene from your future, such as your own wedding etc. 1. Prewriting - Your poem will be about you. Imagine that you can be anything you choose. Would you like to be an animal or a mountain? Discuss ideas with a partner. - What will you be in your poem? List words. Tell what you are like. Tell what you can do. - 2. Writing - Start writing about your topic. Look at your lists. Write down as many ideas as you can. Do not worry if your writing does not look like a poem. - There are many patterns you can use in your poem. You can repeat the same words. Night is flying time. Night is hunting time. Night is my time. I am the old barn owl. You can use words that make special sounds. Whoo, whoo, who are you? Caw, caw, a friendly crow. Bzzz, bzzz, a happy bee. Baaa, baaa, a little lamb. You can use rhyming words. I am a nighttime owl. I like to hoot and howl. - Now write your poem. Use any pattern you wish. After you write a few lines, stop. Read the lines aloud. Can you hear your pattern? In-Class Writing: Free Association with Repetition: - Write a poem about a familiar object, place, person, idea, or action by associating it with many other things. To help generate associations, use at least one word or phrase that keeps repeating for at least part of the poem (each repetition leading to a new association). - You can simply repeat the name of the item you’re writing about, along with pronouns or synonyms referring to it. You can also repeat a longer phrase that refers directly or indirectly to that item. From each repetition you can leap in a new direction, comparing your item to something else, making interesting or unexpected metaphors. - To avoid becoming too monotonous, you can alter or let go of the repetition as the poem moves along. Once you establish a pattern or rhythm, there’s no need to feel trapped by it. Allow the poem to grow organically and energetically. Allow yourself to be playful, surprising, and don’t worry about making logical sense. Step 1: Brainstorm familiar items and repeated phrases (2 mins). Step 2: Write the poem (12 mins). Discussion The tasks of such character help to create terms in order that students-philologists could generalize material, provoke their personal interest and imagination, involve methods and receptions which they were not able to take advantage of independently. Such prompts can limit students-philologists to certain extend, but they are always inculcated in order to find out their professional abilities, similarly as a passage-way of doors is limited by space which can carry out greater possibilities and potential to other free spaces. Experimental researches testify that the single rhymes usage and their learning do not assist memorizing of many new words; undoubtedly, it is constrained from their perception and egocentric thinking. In this connection work with creative translations and personal writing of songs, literary pieces by students, the system of authorial preparatory tasks will assist the semantization of new words, realization of them as communication units and imprinting in memory after certain communicative intentions. It is proved that the interest to the language, woken up by rhymes of the poem, forces students-philologists to concentrate attention on an object and learn. The impressions become brighter, riches of associations wake up. When interest appears, there is a desire to lay hands on a language and curiosity inspires on success and achievement.
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