Health Sciences Branch Faculty Arley Hernández Moreira of Morón
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
Psychological formation, salutogenic, student
The current investigation shows a study of the process of the Cuban medical student’s psychological formation, starting with limitations in educational activities in which difficulties were revealed for the professional’s future preparation to assist in psychological well-being as an expression of the quality of people's lives. The elaboration and application of a methodological strategy of the dynamics of the process of the medical student's psychological formation was outlined as an objective, supported by a model for the salutogenic formation. As a result the afore-mentioned strategy was elaborated and partially applied which positively influenced in the student's preparation.
Cuban medical education is geared towards the formation of professionals committed to improving community well-being by focusing on the enrichment of protection and promotion of health. Presently the importance of positive health factors is projected in the achievement of better confrontation ways, in the enrichment of subjective well-being and the quality of life of people.1,2 In that sense some authors have suggested the use of the term salutogenesis,3 which centers its attention on the factors that influence the maintenance of health beyond mere illness. It is essential to educate the medical student with the previous approaches to health since their future professional performance will be guided towards elevating the levels of the population's well-being and quality of life so as to accelerate the reestablishment of health. In spite of the previous propositions the medical students of the Health Science Branch faculty Arley Hernández Moreira of Moron show limitations in their analyses of health cases since they don't pick up enough information concerning people's psychosocial aspects and the interpretation of the personological resources that are addressed toward the diagnosis and cure of illnesses. Therefore, it is proposed as objective of the investigation, the elaboration and application of a methodological strategy for the salutogenic formation of the medical student. As a result a methodological strategy was developed directed at incorporating the salutogenic focus of health into the psychological formation process of the medical student in which the conscious participation of all human resources involved was established as a requirement, as well as changes in the subjects of the curriculum in which psychological content was being used. In the first instance both internal and external factors that either blocked or supported the formation of the salutogenic focus of health were identified. Most notable among these was the need to increase the attention of psychological well-being and quality of life in health practices recognized by both national and international organizations. Also in the policies of the Cuban Health System the need of a humanitarian focus is declared for the formation of human resources. Moreover, inadequacies were detected in professors’ preparedness which should improve by guiding the system of methodological work toward to the salutogenic focus of health. In a second instance, based on the previous diagnosis, stages and actions were defined that contribute to the student's preparation: Stage I: Cultural salutogenic formation which proposes the elaboration of activities directed at the administrators to share the intention of the strategy and to demonstrate the advantages of its execution. Realization of exchanges from members of the Medical Psychology Discipline with professors and tutors so as to share ideas and clarify doubts concerning the reach that the strategy can have on the quality of the doctor's formation. Explanation in Medical Psychology instruction about the necessity of amplifying health focus and the advantages of the salutogenic in health promotion and prevention, both elements of interest for the achievement of healthy communities. Development of a cycle of methodological educational work with actions geared towards elevating the preparation of instructors. Stage II: Preparation of the Medical Psychology discipline incorporating the salutogenic focus of health. Amidst the proposed actions is the elaboration of bibliographical material with content on the salutogenic focus. Re-elaboration of objectives, system of knowledge and abilities in the analytical programs of Medical Psychology addressed toward the salutogenic focus. Re-elaboration of the preparation of the discipline with the new contents included. Execution of the discipline with the changes carried out, in which the instructors guide activities that motivate the student and drive them to reflect upon, compare, analyze, and explain the health-illness process with a salutogenic focus. Stage III: Preparation of the medical career for the salutogenic systematizing into the academic, labor and investigative aspects. Also in this stage, among the proposed actions, is the revision of psychological content in the career programs. Re-elaboration of practical guidelines directed to the search of information concerning health resources. Redesign of the evaluation of subjects incorporating objectives that lead to the solution of problems with a salutogenic focus. Stage IV: Evaluation of the professional transformations in the process of the medical student's psychological formation. Among the aspects to be kept in mind for the evaluation are: The existence of evidence of the salutogenic focus in department meetings and boards of directors, the team’s motivation shown by the quality of interventions at their meetings and workshops, the students' behaviors in favor of the salutogenic focus after receiving the changes in the education, the existence in documents of deliberate actions intended toward the focus, verification of foreseen changes in the preparation of the career, the years and subjects with incorporation of the salutogenic focus in the treatment of the health-illness process and recognition of the student’s preparation for the use of the salutogenic focus in graded results. The general evaluation: This evaluation will keep in mind the changes reported in each of the stages, as well as the manner of completion of each objective from one course to another. The achievements, inadequacies and proposals of changes will be described in detail in each of the actions by stages developed. The partial application of the methodological strategy for the medical student's salutogenic formation was developed in the Medical Psychology discipline, carrying out the necessary changes according to the actions previously proposed. As a result the students received educational activities intended for the systematizing of the salutogenic focus of health and verified through a pre-experiment, evidencing improved preparation in relation to the well-being and the quality of life. For this reason it is affirmed that the methodological strategy is feasible in medical education
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