Centre of science of monuments
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
Military History Museum, Museum of Military District, Forces History Museum, museology. Ключевые слова: военно-исторический музей, музей военного округа, музей истории войск, музейное дело, музееведение
The article highlights the work of the museum of history of troops of the Kyiv Red Banner district. The activity of the museum, materials and documents that covered the long history of the Kiev district. Exhibition and exposition reveals the historical aspect of their formation in the halls of Military History Museum.
Introduction. Much has been written and told about the history of Kiev military district, one of the oldest districts of the Soviet Union. But not everyone knows that a lot of famous generals were served in the Kiev military district, such as Budyonny S.M., Blucher V.K., Berzin R.I., Boldin I.V., Bozhenko V.M., Baghramyan I.H., Voroshilov K.E., Gamarnik Y.B., Grechko A.A., Dubovoy M.I., Dunchych A.I., Zhukov G.K., Kotovskiy G.I., Karbyshev D.M., Kirponos M.P., Koshevoy P.K., Krapyvyanskyy M.G., Laschenko P.M., Mzhevanadze V.P., Timoshenko S.K., Frunze M.V., Fabrytsyus J.F., Fedko I.F., Chuikov V.I., Shchadenko E.A., Shchors M.A., Anchor I.E., Jakubowski I.I. and many other government and military figures [1, 2-4]. The district was created in May 12th, 1919 in the Ukrainian land by order № 10 of the People's Commissariat of Military Affairs in the USSR. The commander of the district was appointed Bogdanov M.S. . Topicality. After the liberation of Kyiv, November 6th, 1943, in March 1944 the government of Ukraine adopted a resolution "On the exhibition of professional weapons and equipment in Kiev", which was placed in Pushkin Park (near the studio of Alexander Dovzhenko and Palace of Culture factory "Bolshevik"). In February, 25th, 1945 the exhibition was inaugurated. It was introduced over five thousand items (trophies from four Ukrainian Fronts). In May 19th, 1944 the Government of Ukraine adopted a resolution on the organization of the new exhibition "Partisans Ukraine in the defense against the German fascist invaders", opened in April 30th, 1946 in Kiev, in the house where now are the Committee of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (str. Grushevskogo, 18). The rooms on two floors of 15,000 visitors were presented exhibits [3, 88-91]. These two exhibitions are open to the public until the autumn of 1951. Since 1951 exhibitions like trophies of the Red Army in Kiev and Ukraine in general not carried out. Much of the exhibits - especially the large military equipment - tanks, self-propelled artillery, artillery systems, aircraft, etc. - went to scrap, a smaller portion was transferred to various museums and was used as an exhibition or kept in the Repository [4, 151-158]. In 1956, on founds of Kyiv District House of Officers on Kirov Street, 30/1 (now - National Military History Museum of Ukraine, Grushevskogo str., 30/1) was established military and scientific community, whose members studied and synthesized experience of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 years, engaged in promotion of military-scientific knowledge, military-patriotic education of the younger generation. In November 6th 1967 by the decision of the Kiev military district commander Colonel-General (since 1977 Marshal) Kulikova V.G. was opened Museum of the history of troops of Kyiv Red Banner Military District. The museum is housed in the building of the District House of Officers [3, 88-91]. The museum was housed in 14 rooms with a total area of 900 m2, which were exhibited more than 4000 valuable items, including battle flags, samples of weapons and military equipment, personal belongings and Ceremonial weapons veterans county and Heroes of the Soviet Union and a large open area with military equipment that revealed the emergence and development of the Red army in Ukraine . The purpose of the article - elaborate activities and historical foundations of formation Military History Museum, in the oldest military district in Ukraine in the postwar period. Main part. In the halls of the museum were submitted materials and documents covering long history of the Kiev district. Since the opening of the museum exhibits are constantly replenished and already in 1973, the museum consisted of about 5000 items - documents, photos, charts, weapons, military equipment. Before the first hall, the well-designed stands and showcases the distant past was shown oldest district. Materials and artifacts of pre-revolutionary era told that Ukraine was associated with military activities of prominent generals Suvorov O.V. (1730-1800) and Kutuzov M.I. (1745-1813). Also presented information that the famous pilot Petro Nesterov (1887-1914), who performed the world's first "loop" served in the district in 1910-1914 years. There was also shown that in 1821 in the District troops the South team of Decembrists conducted revolutionary work, that team was led by Pestel P.I., who made Kyiv a major center of the revolutionary movement, which covered workers, students and soldiers Kiev district [3, 90]. The first hall of the museum was dedicated to revolution and civil war in Ukraine. Hall kept documents and photographs of events 1917-1919 year, the units of the Red Army and fight for Soviet power in Ukraine. On the bridge near the brick wall on which were pasted appropriate proletarian cards was a machine gun "Maxim", on which there was a poster with the inscription "For power Sovetov". According to the author, Art Hall was designed according to the requirements of the period and gave a deep impression of past revolutionary days. Central stand of the hall revealed the history of the Kiev military district. There may be seen portraits of Antonov-Ovseenko V.A., Bubnov A.S., Podvoisky M.I., Artem (Sergeyev) F.A., Zatonsky V.P., Bogdanov M.S. who were military organizers in Ukraine. There were the opportunity to read the order № 10 dated May 12th, 1919 published by the People's Commissariat of Military Affairs in the USSR and named "On creation of the Kiev military district" [1, 2-4; 3, 89]. Upon entering the museum's second hall was a valuable relic - Red sign which were handed cadets by Zamoskvorechye workers in Moscow, in 1918, during the organization of the first courses of Red commanders. Under this banner red cadets fought during the Civil War under Kakhovka and in 1941 defended Kyiv. Hall reflected the martial ways of such famous divisions as: 24 Samara-Ulyanovsk Iron Division, 25 Chapayev Division, the Red Cossacks unit and other units of the young Red Army, their commanders, fighters and weapons. Many documents were presented in the third hall of the museum of the Kiev Military District, they were covering the history of the Red Army, its participation in the civil war, armed struggle against the army of the UPR, the German occupiers, the White Guard armies of Denikin A.I., Wrangell P.M., White Poles as well as the life and work of the district during the peace-building. Hall showed military reform 1924-1925 years, rearmament for new domestic weapons. Against the background of large industrial facility photos, were shown models of tanks, planes and other equipment. Also was presented the military uniforms and insignia that were entered in 1935 in portraits of prominent commander of Ukraine and Crimea Frunze M.F., commanders of the Kiev military district Egorova A.I. and Yakyra I.E. Continuing in the fourth hall of the museum, where were exhibited photos of Kiev maneuvers from 1935, it was possible to see a documentary about these maneuvers - "Struggle for Kiev". In this room were shown personnel preparation in the grate way. With the exhibition everyone could learn about the activities of military schools in the district which in 1940 there were 17. Exhibition photos acquainted visitors with outstanding graduates of schools, prominent commanders such us: Army General Vatutin M.F., Chernyakhovsky I.D. and others, as well as district commanders in the prewar years, such us commander Fyodor I.I., Timoshenko S.K., Army General Zhukov G.K., Colonel-General Kirponos M.P. A large gallery of Heroes of the Soviet Union - students of the Kiev military district who received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union before WW II. Kirponos M.P. again among them. In the window shown his personal belongings, jacket, portrait, spurs, ruler and commander documents. The exhibition of fourth hall ends with illustration photos that show the arrival of fascism in Germany and the outbreak of the Second World War [3, 88]. The fifth hall shows us the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Great poster “The Motherland Calls”. Photos Stalin's speech July 3th, 1941, tape recording of the song "Get up huge country, stand up fight to the death" and photographs which revealed the atrocities of fascism in the war and restored in memory the most important examinations for the Soviet people, and a sculpture of Hero of the Soviet Union Karbyshyva D.M., who was tortured by the Nazis, spoke about the great courage and resilience in their struggle for their Homeland. In the sixth hall were widely shown early days of the war. The photographs that hung in the hall, were presented heroes guards, among them was Lieutenant Lopatin and others. The fighting at the border near Przemysl, where 99 rifle division was fought, its martial Mark was presented on the sixth hall too. In July 22th, 1942 the 99 rifle division already was awarded for the aforementioned fights by the Order of the Red Banner. Portraits of the organizers of Defense in 1941, such us Commander of the Southwestern Front Kirponos M.P., Chief of Staff Purtayeva, then Typicova, members of the military council Turmistenka M.A. and Rykova E.M., Commander of the Air Force Front Astakhova F.A., head of operational management Bahryamyana I.H. and others, as well as photos of the first days of fighting on the border and on the outskirts of Kyiv there were also presented. On the wall of the hall was marked Kyiv defense scheme. Here DOT number 205 and 131 of the garrison who heroically fought for Kyiv. In the showcase were presented orders, medals, documents and personal effects belonging to the people who gave their lives in the battle for the capital of Ukraine - Kyiv. In the seventh hall of the museum were presented many papers and documents that covered the events of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 - about the fierce border battles, heroic defense of Kyiv, combat operations of the 1st and 2nd Ukrainian fronts for the liberation of Ukraine from Nazis invaders, activities of partisans and underground fighters. Kyiv was defended itself within 73 days, thereby disrupting the German war plans, for this Kyiv was awarded by the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal. The crossing of the Dnieper and the liberation of Kyiv in 1943 showed documents, photographs, medals participants in those events - the heroes of forcing the Dnieper, as well as actions of underground and partisans. The seventh room clearly showed the expulsion of German occupants from Ukraine. There was a picture where the general Kryuchenkyn V.D. welcomes fighters from the release of Kharkov. There on showcase was presented a silver sword of retired Lieutenant General Kryuchenkyna V.D., which he handed from Marshal Tymoshenko S.K., as a gift from an old Cossack Fataliyev, who was a participant of Civil War. The stands shoved photos of heroes who were forcing the Dnieper in 1943, battle flags of units that were called “Kyivski”, personal things that belonged to Colonel General Zhmachenko F.F., a former commander of the 40th Army, which liberated Kyiv. In Section of guerrilla struggle and clandestine life in Ukraine were showed photos, documents and things that belonged to the famed spy Kuznetsov M.I. The exhibition of this hall was ended of the stand, on which has been shown restore of Kiev military district. There were papers, round seal, the newspaper "Lenyn’s Banner", portraits Commander Military District Lieutenant-General Gerasimenko V.F., and head of political Department of Kiev Military District Colonel Lukashuk V.V., a portrait of Hero of the Soviet Union Shevchenko A.I., who repeated the Matrosov’s feat. The museum exhibited a valuable relic - 45 mm gun, which is the first one in 1943 was bounced across the Dnieper to the Bukrin base and took part in fierce battles for the maintenance this base [3, 91]. In the eighth hall has been shown the end of the war in 1945. In bright room on the background of Victory Parade exhibited documents and photographs, which were telling about the Great Patriotic War in 1945. In a large glass showcase presented abandoned Nazis flags, on them were German weapons, medals and a photocopy of the act of surrender of Germany, photographs of the house in which has been signed that act. On the walls of the hall hung two rows of large portraits of Heroes of the Soviet Union, among them were portraits of participants of the Victory parade, such us Major General Umanskiy T.F., Major General Osadchiy A.P. and others. There were shown their drafts with which they took part in the parade. In the corner of the room was a large open book, in which each museum visitor can read the following words of Gorky: "Let you die, but in the song brave and strong in spirit, always you will be a living example, the prize proud to freedom, to the light" . Below were displayed portraits of Heroes of the Soviet Union, who have been forever included in the lists of military units of the district, among them was twice Hero of the Soviet Union Army General Chernyakhovsky I.D. Quite informative and thoroughly in the halls of the museum were shown life and work of the district in the postwar period. Thus, the ninth and tenth halls were devoted training of troops from 1946 to 1959. This confirms stand, which displayed "In the days of peace as in war." Halls revealed the work of engineer troops with mine territory of Ukraine of shells, that remaining in the area. Also were showed innovators and inventors, athletes, champions like Jabotinsky, Kypko, Sinyavsky, Deryugin and many others. There were showed their awards, trophies and sports equipment that belonged to the world recorders. In the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth halls of the museum showed activity of Kiev military district in the period from 1960 to 1978 years. Central shield was dedicated to the missile troops. They showed models of missiles, tanks, planes, including exhibited "Antey", whose weight was 250 tons and useful lifting weight - 80 tons. These halls also talked about the state awards of military district troops in peaceful days in the Kiev. Widely was presented October relay. There, in the state of awards ceremony in peacetime were presented a portrait of Lieutenant Shcherbakov V.P., who was awarded by the Order of Lenin in 1967. Over portraits awarded military were five velvet flags - signs of Military Council of Kiev military district for canceling performance in combat and political training. In the gallery of commanders of the district were portraits of Grechko A.A., Chuikov V.I., Koshevoj P.K., Jakubowski I.I., Kulikov V.G., Salmanov G.I., Gerasimov I.A. . The fourteenth hall was devoted to the military cooperation of armies of the Warsaw Pact. There was posted text of the Warsaw Pact, coats of arms and flags of the Warsaw Pact countries, photos, documents and presents to the district’s military from friendly countries. On the open platform were introduced technologies from 45 mm guns to the rockets, current at that time. Among the military equipment on a special ceiling was a T-34, which glorified the Soviet tanks construction. Museum of the history of troops of Kyiv Red Banner Military District acted to Ukraine's independence. In 1991 it was disbanded. Some of the exhibits were taken to Moscow, many documents and materials - to the National Military History Museum of Ukraine. Conclusion. In the museum has been presented many papers and documents that covered the events of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 - about the fierce border battles, heroic defense of Kyiv, combat operations of the 1st and 2nd Ukrainian fronts for the liberation of Ukraine from Nazis occupants, activity of partisans and underground fighters. Quite informative and thoroughly in the halls of the museum were shown life and work of the district in the postwar period. Museum of the history of troops of Kyiv Red Banner Military District acted to Ukraine's independence. In 1991 it was disbanded. Some of the exhibits were taken to Moscow, many documents and materials - to the National Military History Museum of Ukraine [7, 59-62].
(c) Архив публикаций научного журнала. Полное или частичное копирование материалов сайта возможно только с письменного разрешения администрации, а также с указанием прямой активной ссылки на источник.