Y.A. Buketov Karaganda State University

Номер: 2-4
Год: 2016
Страницы: 26-30
Журнал: Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и естественных наук

Ключевые слова

professional training, foreign students, ethnical pedagogization, ethno-cultural education, ethnopedagogical education. Ключевые слова: профессиональная подготовка, студенты-иностранцы, этнопедагогизация, этнокультурное образование, этнопедагогическое образование

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Аннотация к статье

The author studied in the article the issue of training of foreign students under ethnical pedagogization of university educational process, which is based on the conceptual provisions of the pedagogical theories that are relevant to the training of foreign students, namely the theory of ethnopedagogics and ethnic psychology, theory of vocational education, theory of educational content, value theory, the theory of personality.

Текст научной статьи

There is progressive growth of the contingent of foreign students in the national system of education, whose level of professional preparedness in our country depends on the specific social, economic, political, psychological and pedagogical conditions, among which the most important is the development of a new ethno-cultural environment. In connection with its development objectively actualized the problem of knowledge of national-psychological characteristics of foreign students, which arose as a result of practical activities of high school, have difficulty in communicating with the different regional groups. This problem is scientific and practical significance in terms of international and intercultural cooperation. We believe that the study of this problem should be based on the conceptual provisions of the pedagogical theories that are relevant to the training of foreign students, namely the theory of ethnopedagogics and ethnic psychology, vocational education theory, theory of educational content, value theory, the theory of personality. The goal of education today is increasingly becoming the reproduction and development of culture as a universal field of knowledge in a variety of universal and national wealth. There cannot be education, not rooted in national, ethnic culture. This postulate inevitably actualizes the problem of ethnic and cultural education of young people. In this respect, as you know, one of the main starting points becomes a concept of ethno-cultural education in the Republic of Kazakhstan, approved by order of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 15, 1996. The concept developed by Professor Zh. Nauryzbaev. Social, economic and political prerequisites for the development and adoption of this concept is that: democratic reforms being implemented in the Republic of Kazakhstan directed to the recognition of human rights and freedoms, irrespective of nationality, on the non-discrimination on ethnic or racial grounds; Kazakhstan is a poly-specificity and poly-confessional population, which by its "cultural and linguistic differences divided by the preferred orientation of one of the two languages; State and Russian communicative importance and prevalence of which are inadequate"[1,3]; in this regard it is the need for implementation of the education system of the four main functions: broadcasting, developing, integrating differentiating. Despite the fact that these functions are inherent in classical education, the author interprets the content in the context of ethno-cultural education, which he interprets as "education aimed at the preservation of ethnic and cultural identity of the person through initiation to the native language and culture, with simultaneous development of the values of the world culture". In this regard, the essence of the above functions is filled with new meaning. So that translates the function is determined by the integrity and reproducibility of the ethno-national communities to develop - the formation and development of national identity, differentiating - through the identification of national - cultural needs of human ethnic groups, integrating - software interaction, interpenetration and mutual enrichment of cultures, the integration of the individual in the world and national cultures. Such an interpretation of the functions of education is due to the basic idea of the concept analyzed - the creation of a language model aimed at preserving ethnic groups and, at the same time, the development of the values of other cultures. This, in turn, determines the strategic goals and ethno-cultural education: ethnic identification and integration of the state. The realization of these objectives, according to the author, it is possible to create ethno-cultural educational environment, which he interprets as a cultural soil, the field for the development of ethnic cultures, the material conditions for the development of national and cultural communities. Structural components of this space are: institutional, extra-institutional and informal. The basis for the classification of structural components of ethno-cultural education is a form of organization. Ethno-cultural educational environment is created on the basis of teaching language and course content. In the context of foreign students training the particular importance is given the choice of language of instruction: as a rule, the choice should be determined in favor of the language, is the State one. However, the scientists argue that "it is necessary to draw on the positive experience in the world to introduce bilingual education". Moreover, we note that due to objective factors of historical development of the national education system and policy of language training in the Soviet period in Kazakhstan today have developed the necessary prerequisites for the formation of the trinity of languages: Kazakh, Russian and English. In other words, ethno-cultural education, solving the problems of formation of "multi-lingual individual" has the potential to prepare citizens who are able to communicate effectively, not only in their native language, but owning three, four or more languages. Languages knowledge, forming a developed linguistic consciousness, as the author claims, broadens the mind of the individual, promotes a positive attitude toward tolerance and surrounds vision of the world. Regarding the list of courses studied in the context of ethnic and cultural education there are the priorities of the discipline of social and humanitarian cycle, since they constitute the national component of the content of education in general. In fact, history, sociology, cultural studies, philosophy, linguistic disciplines, literature necessarily ethnicity in nature. What can be said about the Science subjects: as you know there is no German physics, or physics which is different from the French, as well as there is no US chemistry, the chemistry which differs from English. These disciplines constitute a non-national component of educational content. A little bit different situation is with geography. It occupies an intermediate position between national and non-national components, as without knowledge of the fatherland, there can be no love for the motherland. Perhaps it is no coincidence Zh.Nauryzbai, describing multicultural identity as one of the expected results of ethno-cultural education, draws attention to the geographic consciousness, which should have such a person. He explains that "consciousness is formed not only by geography, but also geography, ethnography, environmental subjects as close in the sense orientation to issues of ethnicity and culture, to the enforcement traditions inherent in ethno-cultural education. These are the new directions of science and education, such as the ecology of culture, ecology ethnic group, human ecology, ecology of the spirit, moral ecology, etc... ". Along with a strong linguistic and geographical planetary consciousness, multicultural identity has embossed historical consciousness. This reinforces the assertion that it is the social and humanitarian disciplines in the content of education determine the nature of ethno-cultural and ethnopedagogical education. In this sense, particularly significant place should take the study of history. In the context of our research we are talking about history, especially in Kazakhstan, where the simultaneous study of the history of culture as art history, history of the world and national philosophy leads to the individual to familiarizing ethnical and social values in their dialectical unity with the universal. Thus, the content of education in the framework of the analyzed concepts, strengthening the position of social and humanitarian disciplines, aimed at building a multicultural identity through the implementation of strategic and fundamental objectives of ethno-cultural education: ethnic identity and civic integration. As you know, multicultural identity - is an individual who has even the religious, artistic, aesthetic, legal consciousness. Therefore, the content of education in accordance with the concept of ethno-cultural education and training should include courses on cultural studies, art history, religious studies and law. In the context of our study are particularly important tactical tasks related to the coordination of efforts in the field of international educational exchange. Today, there are unlimited opportunities to maximize the use of the ideas of national pedagogic in education and training, and the priority should be the reliance on universal values. Their inseparable unity with the ethno-social values are updated by the problem of axiological approach to socialization. Axiological approach to vocational training of students - foreigners is needed to address this through the prism of moral and value qualities. Axiology is interpreted in a pedagogical dictionary [2] as a philosophical doctrine of the physical, cultural, spiritual, moral and psychological values of the individual, collective, society, their relationship with the world of reality, the modified value-regulatory systems in the process of historical development. In modern pedagogy axiology acts as its methodological basis, which is the doctrine of the nature of human values such as the meaning of life, the ultimate goal of human and justification, including professional activities. The philosophical dictionary [3] axiology understood as (Gr. Axios - value) value theory, which explores the impact and the quality and properties of objects, phenomena and processes that can meet the needs, interests and desires of the people. Under the influence of the general axiology has developed an understanding of the value characteristics of pedagogical phenomena. In the center of axiological approach is the concept of interdependence, interaction of processes, which examines the world of the whole man. Social development of personality is his personality has alienated him from thinking humanistic foundation. It is in the context of humanization of such thinking is the global trend of modern social development. Exactly the introduction to values is the essence of socialization. If it is a multicultural personality, it makes sense to speak and that the approval of the organic unity of universal and ethno-cultural values which is the content of ethno-cultural education. In this regard, there is reason to determine the ratio of the category to the categories of multicultural identity of the subject and the subject of ethnicity ethnic culture. In the scientific school of Professor K.Zh. Kozhakhmetova [4; 5] for a number of ethnopedagogical studies these categories have become the key. Particular emphasis in the context of our research we are doing on the combined type of ethnic identity, which is in accordance with the classifications, we tend to be described as a creative identity. That is, the foreign student with steadily formed ethnic identity with their native culture, staying a short time in another country (country of study), it can be easily adapted to the changed conditions in the event of a foreign culture through his. At the same time, if foreign students form a positive ethnic identity, in this case, it laid the groundwork for the formation of creative ethnic identity. It is also important for us that scientists in the structure of identity define the following components: epistemological (cognitive), affective, and behavioral components. The significance of this provision for our study lies in the fact that these components apply equally to ethnic and professional identity. Ethnical-and-psychological concept of identity, taken as a basis for pedagogical phenomena determine the concept of the ethnic group of the subject, the subject of ethnic culture, the formation of which is a proper subject of ethnopedagogics. In domestic pedagogical science theoretical development of the subject of ethnic categories made in the framework of ethnic education, proposed by Professor K.Zh. Kozhakhmetova [4]. According K.Zh. Kozhakhmetova, the human being as a member of the ethnic group is represented by the presence of two interpenetrating and interrelated areas where the formation of human personality is predetermined by social conditions that ensure the mental features of the person, as well as the presence of certain social programs, which is closely associated with the genetic program and the individual properties of a biological organism, which is characterized by the vital features. To the vital features include gender and age differences in the biological organism. Mentality is determined the spiritual world of man, national identity, national history, national ideology, national etiquette. On this basis, it concludes that the "personality - a combination of individual ethnical-and social typed and psychologically", where personality structure represented by development and formation of two main components, namely: 1. Developing ethnic personality traits: personal orientation (moral character, outlook, beliefs and national identity); temperament, gender-sensitive; experience (knowledge, skills); personality traits: memory, emotions, feelings, sensations, etc. 2. Generated ethnic personality traits: knowledge of the language, history, philosophy, culture, customs, traditions, etc.; ability to prepare national dishes, to play national instruments, etc.; creation of progressive traditions, culture and art; and skills to national etiquette in communication and in the performance of ethno-social role. Formation of the person in this context is the process and the result of its development, the core of which is the development of social roles in the dialectical unity of the system of ethno-social roles. And the process of the development or implementation of a particular ethno-social role is integrative characteristic of personality development. It is quite objective, because "development" and "execution" of ethno-social roles - a manifestation of the unity of all aspects of the personality: the rational, moral, volitional, emotional, aesthetic, practical principles. Thus, the criterion of ethnic education of the individual is the objective characteristic of her willingness and ability to fully perform certain ethno-social role [6, 57]. Since the process of training of foreign students in a high school is specially organized environment, and multicultural space is less accessible than the organization of the educational environment, because it is dominated by the element of spontaneity, to order that can only be joint efforts on the organization of several educational environments, it is advisable talk about a multicultural educational environment, which can be organized in accordance with the intended target. As is known, Kazakhstan's ethnical pedagogy is a system of knowledge about the world outlook, historical and cultural experience of the Kazakh and other peoples, the national psychology of the ethnic group's traditional methods of training and education. Its backbone factors are the nature, words and thoughts, activities and work, communication, art, tradition and religion. In the life of the separate individual the elements of the national pedagogy and psychology acquire the specific subtleties and nuances that directly or indirectly connected with the real life of every nation. In some cases the primary importance is belong to the language, in other - religion, - the third - features of the culture and way of life. About the national differences of people in the communication process is said not only teachers, psychologists, but philosophers, anthropologists and sociologists. Thus, the need to study national characteristics originated from the practical needs and the lack of information on this issue. Therefore, there is a need to consider the ethnical-and-pedagogical specifics in working with foreign students from different regions and their national and psychological peculiarities.

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