Russan university of peoples' friendship in Russia
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
competitiveness, energy, resources, economy, industry
In this article has been analyzed the current situation and current level of the energy industry of Tajikistan. The Law "On Energy" of the Republic of Tajikistan, defines and regulates the energy industry. We analyzed the stability of the energy sector of the country. We came to the important opinion that the construction of small hydropower stations, mainly through private investments is one of the solutions of the problem; Energy is the region's economy, which includes exploration, extraction, generation, transformation, transportation, storage, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy resources and energy.
The governmental energy company OAHK «BarkiTojik» responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, almost the entire territory of Tajikistan. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, the operation of most energy facilities operated by the private company OAO "Pamir Energy" . Currently, the competitiveness of such industries as manufacturing, construction, transport, agriculture has been reduced. According to the table-1, there is a decrease in the number of employed in these sectors. Agency for Statistics under the control of President of the Republic of Tajikistan annually publishes reference books on socio-economic situation in the republic. According to the reference books, you can trace the dynamics of employment in different sectors. In the table-1, in November 2011, 2012, 2013, we consider the dynamics of employment by industry. Such a comparison would enable most accurately analyze the dynamics of employment changes in general, as compared subjected to the same month. In the structure of employees, the largest part is agriculture. During the research period we analyzed that more than 77% is part of the rural economy, this shows that the strategic direction of the economic policy of the government of Tajikistan is the development of the agricultural sector. Agriculture of Tajikistan industry is currently experiencing major problems not only with the financing, provision of equipment, seeds, irrigation and the search for markets, but also with the electricity shortage, which forces us to use in the agricultural manual labor, which is less efficient and more labor-intensive, so the number of employed in the industry is so large. Table-1 . The number of employed in different sectors (thousand people) Data 2011 2012 2013 Rejection, 2013 to 2011 Ths/ppl % Ths/ppl % Ths/ppl % Ths/ppl % Industry 88.5 13.72 91.8 14.26 91 14.29 2.5 0.57 Construction 29.8 4.62 25.1 3.90 23.4 3.67 -6.4 -0.94 Transport 27.3 4.23 26.9 4.18 26.1 4.10 -1.2 -0.13 Agriculture 499.6 77.43 499.9 77.66 496.4 77.94 -3.2 0.51 Total 645.2 100 643.7 100 636.9 100 -8.3 Х Tajikistan's economy is developing, but not yet stable, it can be seen from the table-1. In the sectors we observed reduction in the number of employees: the construction sector consists of 6.4 thousand people, the transportation of 1.2 thousand, the agriculture of 3.2 thousand. The total reduction of operating is 8.3 thousand people. In the dynamics of a single sector, where there is a growth running at 2.5 thousand, is the industry sector. This increase was due to the launch of the new hydropower station and the development of the mining industry; the number of jobs respectively increases. At present, in the mining industry, explored more than 400 deposits and operated about 100 fields, which produce up to 40 kinds of mineral raw materials as fuel, and metallic, non-metallic minerals. The Republic of Tajikistan occupies a leading position in Central Asia of the coal reserves. The total geological reserves about 4 billion tons. The 80% of coal relates to coking. On the territory of the republic revealed deposits of rare and precious metals: zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury, fluorspar, as well as gas, oil, etc. For a long time, at mining enterprises of the Republic of Tajikistan, mined only ore and do primary processing. While Tajikistan lost more than one million dollars, the metallurgical recycling took place in other countries, as there were no facilities for the production of the final product, and therefore the industry did not develop. Currently, this issue is paying a lot of attention. There is a positive experience of joint work of the Tajik-Chinese enterprise “Zarafshon” - which is a complete technological cycle: generation, processing and metallurgy . For the development of this industry requires electricity. Because of the deficit of this resource, the development of the industry will slow down, and of course some technological cycles do not work. All of the above confirms the need for the development of energy sector in Tajikistan, which will pull the rest of the industry and make it competitive. The increase of competitiveness of the energy industry provides more general hydropower resources. Reserves of water and energy potential of the country, which amounts of 527 billion kW/h. Currently 12.5% of its total volume only used. The country takes the 2-nd place in the world, in a specific reserves of electricity per capita (87.8 thousand kW/h. per person in a year). 99% of the ectricity is produced by hydroelectric power stations and 1% by thermal power stations. Small energy in the country is represented by 310 hydropower stations, and only 175 of them are active. On the development of the hydropower industry in the country by the Programme of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, for the period 2009-2020, envisages the construction of 189 small hydropower stations. The tajik government sees the economic growth on the development of hydropower. In 2014, it launched more than 8 hydropower stations. Data for small hydroelectric stations presented in the table 2 . Table 2 . Small hydropower stations in the Republic of Tajikistan Regions HPS (active and inactive) ГЭС (active and inactive) output quality % kW % Dushanbe 0 0,00 0,0 0,00 GBAO Region 48 15,48 7481,0 27,38 Soghd 89 28,71 9604,0 35,15 khatlon 28 9,03 1007,5 3,69 Districts of Republican Subordination 145 46,77 9228,9 33,78 Total: 310 100,00 27321,4 100,00 The most of the politicians, economists and other government ministers are associates the increasing the competiveness of the energy sector of the country to the Roghun hydroelectric power station. Roghun hydroelectric power station is the largest hydroelectric power station cascade of Vakhsh, Tajikistan has a strategic importance, since it is pinned hopes on the country, out of the energy crisis, which occurs annually in winter, due to the seasonal water flow. Roghun HPS construction is necessary for the population and for the development of the energy-intensive industries, increasing competition. The launch of this hydropower station will provide electricity surplus and export it without problems for Tajikistan itself, and this is the rise of the economy to a higher level. And exports of the electricity will not be expensive, it needs to build a power transmission line, construction of roads, railways or pipelines are much more expensive. In addition, the availability of this facility will allow the round to regulate the flow of water and relieve the country from droughts and floods, which in turn will stimulate the development of agriculture . According to the program for the reconstruction, modernization and construction of energy facilities which adopted in 2012, the state plans to invest in hydropower development more than $ 2.6 blillion until 2020, which consists of the state contribution and foreign investment. In conclusion i decided to finish my decision that, all of the above illustrates the growing role and competitiveness of the energy sector in Tajikistan, both in the economy and on the world stage, which determines the need for further development of the sector and to identify ways to improve its competitiveness. In the first place: - A gradual increase in electricity tariffs; - Activation of innovation and investment potential of the sector; - Gradual separation of "BarkiTojik" to improve the financial performance of the company and to attract private investments; - The construction of small hydropower stations, mainly through private investment; - The launch of the Rogun hydroelectric power station; - The creation of the National Fund of renewable energy sources, energy conservation and energy efficiency.
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