ТГПУ им. Низами

Номер: 6-4
Год: 2016
Страницы: 116-119
Журнал: Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и естественных наук

Ключевые слова

воля, развитие, уровень, импульсивность, поведение, обстоятельства, инстинкт, will, development, level, impulsivity, behavior, circumstances, instincts

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Аннотация к статье

Статья посвящена проблема воли, произвольной волевой регуляции поведения и её влияние на различную деятельность человека уже давно занимала умы учёных. Поведение человека обусловливается различными физиологическими и психологическими механизмами. С одной стороны - это безусловно-рефлекторные и условно-рефлекторные механизмы, а с другой - произвольное управление, которое связано не только с физиологическими, но и с психологическим механизмами. Сложность изучения проблемы воли и её влияния на различную деятельность человека состоит в разноплановости понимания и определения категории воли.

Текст научной статьи

Development of volitional regulation of behavior in humans occur in several ways. RS Nemov identifies three sides - in this process. On the one hand - this transformation of involuntary mental processes at random, on the other - the person acquiring control of their summing up, the third - generation of strong-willed qualities of the person [8, p. 432]. All these processes are developmentally starting from the moment of life, when the child masters speech and learns to use it as an effective means of mental and behavioral self-regulation. Within each of these areas of development as it will strengthen its place, the specific conversion, gradually raising process and mechanisms of strong-willed regulation at the higher levels. So, for example, in cognitive processes will initially appears in the form of externally-speech regulation and only then - in terms of intra-speech process. In the behavioral act of volitional control of voluntary movement first concerns the individual parts of the body, and subsequently - the planning and management of a complex set of movements, including inhibition and activation of some other complexes muscles. In the formation of strong-willed qualities of the person will develop can be represented as moving from primary to secondary and further - to the tertiary volitional qualities. Another trend in the development of the will manifested in the fact that a person consciously sets itself more and more challenges and pursue ever more distant goal, requiring the application of considerable effort of will for quite a long time. For example, the student still in adolescence can put the task to develop at such powers, the formation of which have expressed no natural inclinations. At the same time he can set a goal to do in the future, challenging and prestigious activity for the successful implementation of which requires this kind of ability. For this example, there are many examples in life of how people become famous scientists, artists, writers, achieve your goals, not having good instincts, mainly due to increased capacity and will. Formation will begin in early childhood. In the first years of life a child (under 3 years) will develop due to the gradual mastery of voluntary movements and elementary independent actions with objects (in the process of eating, dressing and undressing, washing, games), which is the premise of voluntary actions. Approximately 3 years in a child manifests the desire for a more complex self-sufficient, he masters the ability to set goals (at first only the closest), the achievement of which involves overcoming certain difficulties. From that age gradually develop the ability to subordinate their actions are not only appealing to the purposes and immediate desires, but also the need (clean in place toys, and so on. P.), Ie, within certain limits, to limit himself. By about 6 years children are already to a certain extent capable of "inhibitory control" over their behavior. Are crucial requirements for the child and his motives for appropriate action on the part of adults. Labor advocates an effective means of educating the will. At preschool age, the child should be the basic duties, in particular, for self-service. It is useful to involve children in feasible kinds of practical work. By participating in a variety of activities, the child learns to overcome difficulties, to act not only in their own interests, but also for other people. Important role in the development of preschool children will belong to the games, especially the collective plot games with rules. Strict compliance with the rules of the game and assumed roles and responsibilities, subordination to the logic of the game are taught a child to organize his behavior, limit the desire to act in the common interest, to bring it started to end. On entering school begins a new stage in the development of the will of the child. At school, the child is faced with a number of rules and long-term obligations, it is necessary to subject the activity requirements of the school and the teachers in front of him. Strict daily life teaches him actively and intelligently manage their behavior, to perform the duties, often subjecting them to personal desires and needs. The success of the school for the formation of students will depend on the organization, methods and techniques of educational work: clear organization of training and employment, the reasonable demands on students daily control over their activities and the implementation of the rules of conduct. A notable development will observed in adolescence, when there is a significant growth of conscious relation to reality, the teaching, the growth of societies motives order (the sense of duty, responsibility). By teenager independence more demanding, weakened the direct custody of them, which makes it advisable to have to organize their behavior. However, the weak formulation of educational work of teen activity often takes the negative form (stubbornness, foolhardiness, impulsivity). At the youthful age in connection with the active formation of outlook motives of societies, the order (with the proper education) is gradually beginning to play a leading role. Parenting a child will in school and in the family through the organization of his volitional behavior. Only in the course of organized activities he acquires experience in overcoming difficulties. It is necessary to play, learning and especially the work of children included the elements of voluntary efforts aimed at achieving the goals that have not only personal, but also certain societies value. Of course, at a very early age (2-3 years) the child is not able to clearly are aware of the social significance of certain actions or deeds. The way education will in this age comes mainly through the direct organization of adult behavior of the child, through the production of the correct mode of living, the right habits. Public is the meaning of the behavior becomes comprehensible child is already at a later age. To bring up a child the courage, determination, perseverance, to be systematically put it into an environment and natural life situations in which he could and would have to show these qualities. In other words, it is necessary to organize a kind of exercise willpower. Greenhouse education, which eliminates all the difficulties with the way of life of the child, leading to the development of weak will, inability to confront the difficulties and achieve goals. However, the goals that are set before the child or that he puts in front of him, should not exceed its capacity. Otherwise, it can form the uncertainty in their own abilities, a habit not to bring it started to end. In every possible way encouraging children to exercise volitional action, the teacher should help them clearly understand the implications of the implementation or failure of tasks. At the same time, promoting a successful outcome, it seeks to ensure that the children appeared happy proud feeling of satisfaction, which is a powerful "reinforcement" committed actions impetus to the implementation of other volitional acts. The role of staff in the education of the will. A well-organized, well-oriented children's group requires its members volitional behavior, helping them to set reasonable and socially useful purposes, to find ways to achieve them, encouraging the fight against obstacles, assists in overcoming them, gives the public, the child's actions assessment, approving or condemning his actions. An important role in the education of B. is the presence of the collective long-term goals, or "promising lines" (the term Makarenko), ie interconnected and subordinated to each other socially valuable goals and objectives - from close and relatively easily attainable to more meaningful and distant. Will tempered in the process of reaching the distant future goals, the next the same purpose should be considered and evaluated as necessary steps to achieve them. A significant role in the education will play an ethical conversation. Often people misunderstand and evaluate volitional qualities: foolhardiness mistaken for genuine courage, stubbornness evaluated as persistence, haste and ill-considered actions taken for determination, and so the children explained in the process of ethical conversations, what will, what it expresses what the right the way her education. Great value (especially in adolescence and in young adulthood) has a self-education will. The provider must help students understand the strengths and weaknesses of their will, to reveal the specific ways of self in the process of solving real-life problems (elimination of the backlog on academic subjects, the acquisition of the necessary and useful, and the eradication of bad habits, and so on), to help in the organization of self-control behavior. Physical state, especially the nervous system, although it is not critical for the development of the capacity for willful actions (exceptionally strong people will have many physically weak and sick people), still plays a role. Often weakness is the result of insufficient stock of physical and nervous strength to overcome the obstacles on the way to the goal, which does not represent any difficulties for the physically strong man. Therefore, physical education, exercise, strengthening the nervous system and improving health, promote the formation of the will. Thus, in the psychology of the will is understood as the Self-determination and self-control person of their activities and behavior contrary to the external and internal obstacles, influences and impacts. Currently, there are various theories will, as part of which are considered appropriate forms of individual behavior (the theory of behaviorism), personal conflicts and ways to overcome them (motivation psychology), strong-willed personality characteristics (personality psychology). Formation of strong-willed qualities of the individual student, as well as the direction of its strong-willed development is an indispensable task of modern education system. All volitional qualities have a direct impact on both the moral and mental development of the child and on its activities. Conclusion Will in psychology is defined as a person's ability to work towards achieving this goal consciously, breaking the external and internal obstacles. If necessary, a strong-willed person is able to abandon the planned or implemented actions, if it no longer meets the changed circumstances. Such is human nature, and the ability, if necessary, to refrain from a particular action. Overcoming obstacles and difficulties associated with the so-called will power - a special state of mental stress, which mobilizes physical, intellectual and moral powers of man. Determined action by external objective circumstances, such as conditions, way of life and human activities. These impacts are remote and indirect, and therefore do not always realize that sometimes creates the illusion of absolute arbitrariness of human actions and behavior. This is based and idealistic interpretation of the will as a kind of spirituality that makes complete freedom, the arbitrariness of human behavior. Free will is not in an imaginary independence from natural laws and the laws of society, development, and based on the knowledge of these laws, the possibility to use them for specific purposes. However, volitional activity of man, being objectively determined, not understood as adherence to a fatal external circumstances, supposedly liberating man from responsibility for his actions.

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