Karaganda State University named after academic E.A.Buketov
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
public administration, electronic government, electronic services, information technologies, portal Ключевые слова: государственное управление, электронное правительство, электронные услуги, информационные технологии, портал
This article is devoted to the research of the questions of the electronic government development in Kazakhstan. In the article the main models of the electronic government of other states and their features are analyzed, and also process of formation and establishment of the electronic government in our country is characterized. The special place in the article is taken by the analysis of the current legislation of Kazakhstan in the information sphere, in particular the acts concerning functioning of the electronic government and interaction of authorities with citizens by means of information and telecommunication technologies. In the conclusion of the work recommendations on improvement of the legislation in the called field are given.
During the modern period, in a century of the developed information society, the fact that one of the most important prerequisites of state mechanism effective functioning, realization of all stages of public administration process is timely providing the government with reliable information is quite natural. In this sense it is possible to agree with estimates of some foreignscientist, for exampleM.Mikhrovskaya[1, p.91] and home researcher for exampleB.Karipbaev[2, р.109],who consider that at the end of the XX century there was a high-quality updating of the information and communicative technologies which have cardinally changed the modern political sphere, transforming its institutes, norms, designing, at the same time, new models of interaction of the power and society, new forms of organization of discourse about cultural traditions, which impose special requirements to the state information policy. For this reason questions of development of the electronic services provided by the electronic governments of the modern civilized states interest not only simple citizens, but also scientific community which considers them, generally in connection with improvement of public administration system. It must be kept in mind that the problem of influence of information technologies on public administration isn't new. As it is known that thinkers and politicians of antiquity were engaged in questions of state system and management. Works of thinkers of Modern times, such as J.Locke, T.Gobs, Zh.Russo, Ch.Montesquieu,Zh.Boden and others which in the works investigated the nature, essence, genesis of the government also have special value. Here it is necessary to notice that in the conditions of creation and strengthening of the new national states, formation of political institutes their work had very significant and actual character. To the famous western researchers, being engaged in the studied perspective, it is possible to carry V.Wilson, J.Gudnay, M.Weber, N.Luman, R.Darendorf, G.Ellison, L.Whyte, A.Fayol and many others. Each of them has made the contribution to studying of questions of public administration. So for example, it is known that G.Allison studied convergence of public administration and management, and B.Barry considered public administration as the sphere of rational activity of people . It is clear, that speaking about rational action in power in the conditions of information society, it is necessary to pay attention to such important sector of improvement of public administration as introduction of electronic services in this field of activity. Today all of us are witnesses of the fact that in the last decades such concepts as "the electronic government" and "the electronic state" are very widespread. At the same time, both concepts often translate as "E-government". Modern political practice shows that the electronic government is a form of public administration organization which due to wide use of information communication technologies promotes increase of efficiency, openness and transparency of activity of public authorities and local governments, granting in the remote mode of a complex of state services for the person and the citizen, society, the state and business. As for adjacent concepts which are also often used along with the concept "electronic government", such as "electronic parliament", "electronic court", "electronic prosecutor's office" and others, all these concepts, as well as "the electronic government", are part of concept of wider - "the electronic state". This concept is defined as a way of implementation of functions of the state by means of information and communicative technologies and supposes, first of all, transition from paper document flow to electronic at all levels of the power. The purpose of introduction of the electronic government in modern Kazakhstan is the development of electronic democracy for achievement of the international quality standards of electronic state services, openness and transparency of the power for the person and the citizen, public organizations and business. The essence of electronic democracy consists that ideology "the state - for the person" has to extend as well to the sphere of electronic interaction. For citizens it means not only an opportunity to exercise the rights and legitimate interests and that isn't less important, to carry out it in the way, convenient for itself. If to address the historical background, the first prototype of the electronic government has appeared in Singapore in 1980 with adoption of "Programs of a computerization of civil services" (The Civil Service ComputerisationProgramme). But, as some researchers consider, the majority of the countries only at a boundary of the 1990-2000th years in large quantities have begun to create own systems of the electronic government. During this period there were first documents of the international value directed to optimization of systems of the government, the majority of which are obligatory for execution by member countries of these organizations, among which: 1. The declaration on the European policy in the sphere of new information technologies adopted by Committee of ministers of the Council of Europe on 06.05.1999. 2. The directive of the European parliament "About system of digital signatures which are applied within Community", accepted on 13.12.1999. 3. Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society accepted by leaders of the countries of G8 on 22.07.2000. 4. The model law UNISITRAL "About digital signatures", adopted by the Commission of the UN on 05.07.2001. 5. The recommendation of Ministers Committee of the Europe Council of the electronic government accepted on 15.12.2004 [1, p. 92]. On the basis of the specified documents various models of the electronic government were created in the world from which we distinguish the following: 1. Continental model. 2. Anglo-American model. 3. Asian model. So, the continental model is characterized, first of all, by presence of supranational institutes, such as European Parliament which recommendations are obligatory for execution by all EU countries, high degree of integration to common information space and free access to information, tough legislation regulating information legal relationship. Distinctive features of Anglo-American model of electronic government it is possible to call that all electronic services are equally provided through any information channels: The Internet, mobile communication, digital television, etc. Besides, the countries using this model of the electronic government are leaders in introduction and application of different forms of distance learning, first of all with use of the Internet network that is also one of the essential indicators of development level of the state. As for Asian model, it considers, first of all, the high level of corporate culture of these countries, availability of electronic resources and specifics of management which has developed historically. As it was noted above, the first prototype of the electronic government has been created in Singapore which is the classical representative of Asian model of the electronic government, available electronic services became first-ever here and, moreover, the Singapore system "electronic court" has for the first time allowed to submit legal claims in electronic form. Now in Kazakhstan for the purpose of formation of responsible, open and effective public administration the project of development of the electronic government is realized. On the official site of the electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan the electronic government is defined as "uniform system which unites all government bodies and allows them to render services to the population by means of the Internet, electronic terminals or the mobile phone not only to natural persons, but also the companies or businessmen" . For Kazakhstan implementation of the project of the electronic government is an objective requirement of world globalization, need of finding by the country the corresponding public infrastructure adequate to social and economic, political, ideological and information aspects of global interactions. Among prerequisites of formation of the electronic government in our country are: - positive and steady dynamics of information communication development in the public and social sector; - increase of level of technological equipment of government bodies, growth of information culture and openness of government bodies; - requirements of civil society to availability and transparency of government bodies, high-quality providing the state services, efficiency of government, including on structure of expenses of public administration; - increase of democratization level of civil society and information culture; - complication of the society as object of management, updating of tasks about the new forms and means capable to provide controllability with public processes; - development of informatization in the sphere of corporate management; - requirements of society to create adequate model of regulation of economic life of society, development of "digital economy"; - achievement of efficiency limits of modernization traditional methods of public administration; - change of a paradigm of the state construction - transition from model of "updating of democracy" to model of "business construction" which is based on some elements of ideology of corporate management. Achievement of the purpose of transformation of activity of government bodies by means of the electronic government is large-scale, difficult process and assumes serious financial expenses, the solution of the whole complex of political, economic, administrative and technological affairs. The electronic government is realized in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the conditions of implementation of democratic transformations, social political reforms, economic growth. It cardinally modernizes the Kazakhstan system of public administration by use of information communication technologies, changes views and the relation of society to the state services, forms civil culture and qualities of the social individual. Therefore the knowledge of process of formation and functioning, role of the electronic government in system of public administration is important for creation of the competitive, focused on requirements citizens of the government. The idea of creation of the electronic government belonged to the head of state N.A.Nazarbayev which he has put forward at the beginning of 2004. Then in the Republic of Kazakhstan the legislative foundation of creation of the e-government has been laid, in particular the law "On the Electronic Document and a Digital Signature" is adopted. As some russian analysts noted at that time: "The agency on informatization and communication of Kazakhstan has studied experience of construction of the e-governments in South Korea, Singapore, Italy, Germany and Estonia then in the country by means of the international experts has been developed and in 2004 "The state program of formation of the electronic government for 2005-2007" is approved . Already it is possible to say that four main stages of formation and development of the electronic government are during this time passable. Each of these stages takes the important place in the organization of the help to Kazakhstan citizens in interaction with the state. The first stage is information. During this period the portal of the electronic government has been started and filled with information. There was information on state agencies, their work and services which they provide to the population. Besides, regulations of rendering services have been provided and normative legal acts are hung out for acquaintance. At this stage each Kazakhstan citizen could obtain on a portal all necessary information - the list of necessary documents, the state duty size, a contact information of state agency in which it is necessary to address. The second stage is interactive, has been marked by start of granting on a portal of electronic services. An opportunity to receive documents from various establishments has opened to the users of a portal, without wasting time in turns, to send a request in any state agency, without leaving the house and to trace his status. Introduction of interactive services on a portal of the electronic government has allowed to save time on collecting a package of documents. At this stage departmental information systems, the state databases, electronic licensing and a lock of the electronic government have been introduced. The third stage of development of the electronic government is transaction. At this stage citizens have had an opportunity to pay the state taxes and collecting, penalties, utilities. For businessmen the transaction stage was expressed in introduction of electronic government procurement. Benefits are obvious - transparency and openness of the held competitions, tenders has increased. The fourth stage of the electronic government is transformational, at this stage of development the electronic government is today. A main goal from now on is the maximum efficiency in rendering services to citizens. For the sake of achievement of this purpose interactive and transaction services unite in complex services which the Kazakhstan population often needs. The special attention on a portal of the electronic government is paid to socially important services for this reason all of them are transferred to an electronic format. As achievements of the electronic government it is possible to note a positive assessment by the world community. Its high positions in the international and republican ratings, the nominations in competitions testify to it. Extent of development of the Kazakhstan electronic government is estimated as "developing" (emerging leaders) and it is considered one of the most successful. So, on May 13, 2013 in Geneva results of the international competition WSIS Project Prizes 2013 which has taken place within the Forum of the World summit concerning information society have been declared. The system of electronic licensing of Kazakhstan became the best project in the category "E-Business". In April, 2013 the report of the World economic forum (WEF) according to which the Index of network readiness of Kazakhstan is on the 43 place from 144 countries has been published. In comparison with 2012 and the 55th position in a rating the country shows prompt growth in many parameters and is the best among the CIS countries. The index of network readiness defines a level of development of the information and communication technologies (ICT) in the country and consists of 54 indicators reflecting an ICT contribution to economy and readiness of national economies for use of these technologies. Each two years the Department on economic and social problems of the United Nations conducts researches on an assessment of development level of the electronic government in the world (192 countries). In 2012 the electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in this rating has taken the 38th place. At the same time the index of online services has grown by 10 positions, and telecommunication infrastructure - by 14 positions. On an e-participation index which defines possibility of communication of citizens with the government Kazakhstan has taken the 2nd place, having divided it with Singapore. At the end of 2012 on the X anniversary awards ceremony of the National Internet award "Award.kz-2012" the portal of the electronic government http://egov.kz/wps/portalhas occupied the first place in the nomination "Authorities and Self-government", and also has been recognized as the best among bilingual websites. The attention to the project was drawn by the redesign of a portal of the electronic government which has taken place in October as a result of which not only visual registration, but also structure of materials, the logician of placement has changed. The electronic government of Kazakhstan develops not only interdepartmental interaction within the country, but also carries out communication with the electronic governments of other states. So, for example, for an exchange of information resources between the countries - participants of the Customs union supposed to create an interstate lock, and also the unified register of allowing documents and licenses. For the purpose of confirmation of legitimacy of document flow between these countries the third entrusted party has been elected. The important direction in formation of the electronic government of RK is development of information systems of local executive and government bodies. According to plans for development of the electronic government of Kazakhstan, carrying out modernization and creation of new state information systems taking into account safety requirements of information resources was planned. They had to pass thorough examination on compliance to uniform architecture of the electronic government of Kazakhstan in special representatives bodies.According to the Program implementation of the investment project "Electronic Notariate" which organizer is JSC “National Information and Communication Holding “Zerde” continues. The essence of this project consists in connection to a unified information system of 15 departments of justice of RK, 15 territorial notarial chambers, and also 931 notaries in all territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan(Program on development of information and of communication technologies in Republic of Kazakhstan on 2010 - 2014. Decision of Government of Republic of Kazakhstan from September, 29 2010 № 983. - 4.3.7. The development of electronic services). The electronic notoriety coordinates notarial activity, allows to reduce considerably risks of illegal transactions due to verification of documents of natural and legal entities, the land plots, personal and real property. For promoting of services of the electronic government active PR-company by means of conferences, seminars, round tables, exhibitions and other actions is carried out by the state. For the purpose of increase of interest in an electronic method of interaction with the power round tables in different cities of Kazakhstan are organized by the state, training of the population in skills in use of opportunities of the electronic government is provided. Carrying out similar actions is very important for development of the electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. They show electronic state services, give advisory support to the population and business on their use. The events held for the purpose of development of the electronic government not only give the chance to learn current state of a portal, but also the future of electronic state services. Prospects of development of the electronic government are defined in the State program "Information Kazakhstan - 2020", approved by the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan on 8.01.2013 № 464. According to this program target indicators of openness of government bodies are defined: 1) the index of e-participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan (by a technique of the UN) throughout implementation of the Program has to keep among the first 5 countries; 2) the number of actively used applications which are based on services of "open data" in 2017 - not less than 3, in 2020 - 10. For development of "The electronic government" as instrument of informatization of the state the program has also defined target indicators, including: 1) the index of "the electronic government" (by a technique of the UN) in 2017 - among the first 30, and in 2020 has to be in number of the first 25 countries; 2) a share of electronic state services in relation to total number of the services received in a traditional form, in 2017 - 50%, in 2020 - 80%; 3) a share of the automated functions of government bodies, from among potentially automated, in 2017 - not less than 80%, in 2020 - not less than 100% . In general, one may say, that today interest of citizens and business structures in an electronic format of communication with government bodies increases. For example data of a portal of the electronic government according to which as of February 20, 2015 through a web portal of all more than 10 million 764 thousand electronic references, and also 957515 digital signatures have been given testify to it . We can note that the portal of the electronic government is in great demand at citizens and business structures today, it considerably facilitates work of government bodies and renders the state services more quickly and effectively. As problem zones of functioning of the electronic government in Kazakhstan it should be noted: 1. Absence of thorough investigation of regulations and provisions. So, the main statutory act in this sphere is the Law RK "On Informatization" which defines the purposes and the principles of state regulation in the sphere of informatization, including the principle of free access and obligatory granting the electronic information resources containing information on activity of government bodies. It obliges government bodies to provide openness, publicity, transparency of the activity. But actually this principle doesn't work properly, activity of government bodies is actually closed also in physical sense (extremely difficult access control in buildings of government bodies, turnstiles, traffic-control barriers and other barriers), and in information sense (on Internet resources of government bodies information on their activity is provided very poorly); 2. Weak readiness of society to use electronic services in connection with the low level of computer literacy of the population of Kazakhstan; 3. High tariffs for Internet-services that doesn't allow certain categories of citizens to have access to the electronic government; 4. The remaining stereotypes of behavior of citizens which are connected with absence of trust to electronic services. The resolution of the government of RK from 3.10.2007 № 891 is approved the list of information on government bodies which has to be placed on Internet resources of government bodies. According to this list statistical information characterizing a state and dynamics of development of the relevant branch, analytical information on active government body, a contact information of employees, etc. has to be posted on each website of any government body. But actually it isn't always obviously possible to find such information, obligatory for placement, on the Internet websites of government bodies. The law RK "On Informatization" and the Information Kazakhstan - 2020 Program don't regulate properly the functioning mechanism of "The open government", don't establish accurate obligations of the central and local government bodies on ensuring openness of the activity. Thus, on the basis of the above, we can draw a conclusion that now there is an objective need of legislative definition of the principles of development of "The electronic government" and functioning of "The open government", and also carrying out active explanatory work about functioning of the state electronic services and improvement of training system of the population’s computer literacy.
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