Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, dialects, accents, literary language, словообразование, Нахчыван, диалект, говор
В статье исследуются диалектные термины, употребляемые в Нахчыванском районе и связанные с ткацким делом. А именно, приводятся примеры диалектизмов, обозначающих текстильные изделия, названия украшений и орнаментов и раскрывается их терминологическое значение. Также проводится сравнение их со словами, употребляемыми в диалектах азербайджанского языка и в диалектах других тюркских языков.
Development of the weaving is connected with more raw materials, especially wool, cotton and cocoon which are necessary for it. Development of cattle-breading and silkworm breeding in the regions and villages of Nakhchivan help to develop the weaving. We can say that in all houses and villages the people were busy with weaving. Today it is possible to meet ancient weaving examples in majority villages of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Embroidery socks, saddle-bags, rugs have been weaving in these villages and now is weaving too. So the widely spread of weaving and its history made opportunity forming the rich terms connected with weaving in Babek accents. Some part of these terms is using in different dialects and accents of Azerbaijan, the other part is using in Babek accents. As you now there is no any weaving terms vocabulary, these term isn`t learnt in our different dialects and accents we tried to deal with majority of them. Some part of these terms left our literary language, onlu kept in the dialects and accents of Azerbaijan language, also in Babek accents. The other part of thems are using in our literary language. The terms belong to rug, carpet and felt industry also used in “Kiatabi-Dada Gorgud” and exist in our literary language too. The other group terms have different features from literary language. For example we can show the followings: Gaba (all accents) - rug - The word gaba is used in Baki dialect (8; p.-223) in the same meaning. Kanara (majority accents) / kanara (Kul.) - a long and narrow carpet. Kanara isreflecting the same meaning in Ordubad dialect (5; p. -258). The term is formed from edge word. Farsh (Kul., Gah.) - the biggest rug - the word farsh also used in Nakhchivan and Ordubad regions in the same meaning (5; p.-403). In Turkish farsh is used in carpet meaning. Khali / xəli (majority accents) - a big rug. The word is used in Turkman language-khali, in Turkish hali, in garagalpak language-galghi/gilem (4; p.-332) forms and same meaning. There are different names of carpet for theri using purpose in Nakhchivan dialects and accents. For example: difar gabasi/tufar gabasi (wall rug)- a weaven rug for to hang the wall; yer gabasi (place rug) - a weaven and thick rug for floor; garafat qabaghi / taxt qabaghi (in front of the bed or throne) - a little carpet which is laying in front of the bed; taxt ustu / qarafat ustu (upper of the bed or throne)- a weaven rug for upper of the bed; janamazdikh / jenamazdıkh - a little weavon rug for to keep the seal and rosary; ayaghalti - a rug laying the threshold of the home etc. There are names for the colour and embroidery of the rugs in Nakhchivan dialects and accents. For example: gara yerri gaba-black indigenous rug; gulu qirmizi yerri gaba-flower red indigenous rug; surangi / sürəngi yerri gaba- pink colour indigenous rug; davaiyi rangi yerri gaba- camel colour indigenous rug; palıd irangi yerri gaba- oak colour indigenous rug; narish / narinj yerri gaba- orange colour indigenous rug etc. Let`s note that the word “yerri”- expresses the all the colour of the rug exept the colour of the embroidery of the carpet. Generally the “place” -the none enbroidery field of the rug is in the same colour and that colour is vanguard. The rugs named with this vanguard colour. The carpet names according to their bulk: tak yelan gaba-one yelan (border) gaba; cut yelan gaba-twice yelan gaba; ush yelan gaba-three yelan gaba; tak gollu gaba-one lake gaba; qosha gol gaba-twice-lake gaba; ush gollu gaba-three lakes gaba; dord gollu gaba-four lakes gaba etc. The kinds of the rugs for their embroidery: Samavar gollu gaba; qayish gollu gaba; kilim nakhishdi gaba; farmash nakhishdi gaba; qabirgha gollu gaba; al-ala gollu gaba; jeyranni gaba; bunuz gollu gaba; qoshdu gaba; tavizdi gaba; qushdu gəbə; chalabort gollu gaba; chaynik gollu gaba; Huseyin gollu gaba; Shaki gollu gaba; qatarri gaba; govarchini gaba; akhishli gaba; balikhli gaba; badnus gollu gaba; qutulu gaba; Kolani nakhishdi gaba; qizilgullu gaba; chiman/chaman gaba; Salbinaz nakhshidi gaba; khali nakhshidi gaba etc. Let`s note that we will again speak about embroidery names widely. That is why we don`t speak much about them in here. As the nice weaven rugs exist in Babek region, there are attractive kilims and carpets which are weaving this region too. That is why many terms exist in the lexical of the accent which named the kinds of kilims and carpets. Kilim names for theri embroidery: kilsə gullu kilim; chakhmag gullu kilim; nimchə gullu kilim; ilan gullu kilim; tisbagha gullu kilim; samavar gullu kilim; gatdan gullu kilim; minjigli kilim etc. There following carpet kind names in Nakhchivan dialects and accents: Kursu palazi - a big carpet weaved for chair; gazil palaz; pambikh palaz; yer palazi; yarigat palaz - the carpet which its arish made from cotton, arghaj made from wool; tandirasar palazi; saya palaz; karbit - a bulky and guality carpet weaved from wool etc. There some words named the fine weaving things in Babek accents too: Jejim (majrity accents) - it is a thing which weaving from thin thread.- Jejim used in Baki dialect (8; p.-220) in the same meaning. But in Shaki dialect it means “the carpet weaved from wool” (8; p.-263). There some words exist in the accent that they given for from which thread the jejim is weaved and how their embroidery. Example: qayikh jejim - jejim with boat embroidery; ladi jejim- jejim with ladi embroidery; keji jejim - jejim which is made th thread mixed with cocoon; shadda jejim - jejim which its maybe argaj or its arich is cotton etc. There are many terms in Nakhchivan dialects and accents which names the socks` kinds weaved from wool. These names are given to the socks for the parts of them, the sorts of the socks for theri embroidery, accoding to the number of the thread that the socks weaved and some raeson of the socks. Example: Altdikh (in all accents) - the under part of the socks. Boghazdikh (in majority accents) - the part of the socks wearing the legs. Boghazdikh is used in the same meaning in Baki dialect (8; p.-164). Saya jorab (in majority accents) - an none embroidery socks, simply socks. In Babek accents tapikli jorab - a thin socks weaved one thread, gosha ipli / jut ipli jorab (double thread socks)- a thick socks weaved two thread; gol jorab; gul jorab; doghanakh nakhishdi jorab; sikhi sidiyi jorab; gaynag nakhishdi jorab; burukh jorab; tars-uvand jorab; boz jorab; gavlikh nakhishdi jorab; salbi aghaji/ sarv aghaji nakhishdi jorab; irizin jorab etc. are the terms named the sorts of the socks. The mentioned kinds of weavings were prepared in weaving loom. But there are such weavings that there is no any weaving loom for them. Some tools is made from weaved materials in the looms for to form them in different definites and the things used for various purpose. There are interesting terms in Babek accents which are expressing such things. Kharal (in all accents) - A big sack weaved from carpet. Kharal is used in the same meaning in Icharishahar accent of Baki dialect (8; p.-196). There some kinds of chuval (sack) which expresses what animal is it weaved for to carry the load: at chuvali (sack for horse) - a sack necessary to carry the load with horse; eshshax' chuvali-sack for donkey; okuz chuvali-sack for bull; dava chuvali-sack for camel. These terms express the bigness-smallness of the sack. Khasha (Jah.) - a wide and big sack made from goat wool. The word “khasha” exist in dialectological vocabulary of Azerbaijan language (1; p.-410). There are following terms named the sorts of saddle-bag in Nakhchivan dialects and accents: bazax'li khurjun-a decorated saddle-bag; gotazdi khurjun- a tasselled saddle-bag; saya khurjun; yux' khurjunu-saddle-bag for load; at khurjunu-a saddle-bag for horse; ulakh khurjunu- a saddle-bag for donkey; yahargashi - saddle-brow a decorated saddle-bag weaved for to put it on saddle brow; tark khurjunu (back of saddle) - a saddle-bag weaved for the back of the saddle; heyba; jamtay / jamta etc. The felt is one the thing made from wool. From the ancient time the felt also entered to our culture and life as carpet. We meet the word felt in one of our ancient written monument “Kitabi-Dada-Gorgud” eposes: - Kimin ki, oghlu-kizi yox, gara otagha gondurun, gara kacha altina doshayin (6; p.-16) - Who has no son or daughter sit him in black nomad tent, make him to sit on black felt. Tarrix' (in all accents) - a felt put under the saddle to the waist of the horse. In Kazakh dialect this word is used in form of darrix' / tarrix (11-103), in Goychay accents tarlik, but in the same meaning. The is given the following forms in turkic languages. In garagalpag language - tarlik, uzbek language - tarlik, tuva language - derlish, kazakh language - tershik / terlik (5; p.-876) but in the same meaning. Takalti (in majority accents) - a felt which is pu between tarlik and galtagh. This felt is bigger than saddle. If two men ride horse the second one sits on takalti. In Kazakh dialect and Borchali accents the word used in the form of takalti (7; p.-239) in the same meaning. A group of terms used in Babek accents express the kinds of the weaved thread. Majority of these terms are the ancient turkic words. Some of them has alreday forgotten together with the things which they expressed. It is known that one of the forming way of archaism is the words which named the things used in daily life and farm lose their activity an pass to the passive fund. For this majority kinds of weaving thread are not using in our daily life and farm. But it is steel possible to meet such terms in Babek region. Orkan and sijim is the oldest of all. We meet the word sijim in “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” eposes. The word orkan also noted in some ancient vocabularies. The thread names in Babek accents are following: chati, irashma, gatma, bagh, gozakh etc. these thread names are connected with the field where they used and they differ from each other for their reasons. For example, the word chati is used generally thread meaning, but there are some differs between the terms of sanax' chatisi and bizov chatisi. So sanax' chatisi is shortest and there have tassel in both side of it, it is weaved from coloured threads. This chati-thread i used for to fasten the jar to the shoulder-blade of a man. But buzov chatisi -calf thread is longer. During the milking front legs of the cow is fasten with it. By side there different kinds of chati (thread). Example: kinds of thread: chrikh baghi, jambaghi, khurjunbaghi, belbaghi, tumanbaghi etc. (thread of rawhide sandal, thread of jam, thread of saddle-bag, thread of waist, thread of drawers).
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