ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
constructivism, school education, biology teaching, classroom teaching, classroom activities, конструктивизм, школьное образование, преподавание биологии, преподавание в классах, задания в классах
Существует множество теоретических направлений, предлагающих и обосновывающих те или иные методы в преподавании естественных дисциплин на английском языке. В данной статье рассмотрен метод конструктивизма, уникальность которого заключается в формировании знаний у студентов при помощи построения мира вокруг них посредством экспериментов, наблюдения, документирования, синтеза и анализа данных. В статье приведен и описан ряд методов, таких как использование концептуальных карт, сценариев и песен, построение графиков и схем, решение задач, развитие ситуаций, способствующих развитию мышления, усвоению и закреплению полученных знаний.
In the classrooms of today, learners neither are no longer passive recipients nor are the teachers the all knowing 'givers of information, knowledge and wisdom' [1,112]. According to constructivism perspective, the teaching or rather more precisely learning of biology is not the search for the ultimate truth. It is the process which is of utmost importance in biology than the content. So when the learning of biology involves active construction of knowledge by children, then the classroom environment must call for more synergies rather than mere individual participation. Strategies of peer learning through group work, small work and whole class work are important, again depending on task and the teaching objective. Learner autonomy and respect for individual learners is mandatory if real learning is to take place. Encouraging learners to reflect and question their own understanding further aids comprehension. This article contains the review of many classroom activities which encourage thinking, understanding, exploration, problem solving, collaboration, analysis, observation and prediction. Constructivism is a learning theory based on scientific observation and research and explains how people learn. They construct their own knowledge of the world around them through reflection on their experiences. Constructivism as applied to education is a more recent development derived from the work of development psychologist Jean Piaget (1973) and Russian psychologist L.Vigotsky (1978) [2, 56]. Its underlying principles are also influenced by the developmentalist ideas of the French philosopher Jacques Rousseau and later the theories of John Dewey, G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gessell. Constructivism in Biology Education From a constructivism perspective, biology is not the search for truth. It is a process that assists us to make sense of our world. Using a constructivism perspective, teaching biology becomes more like the biology that biologists do; it is an active, social process of making sense of experiences, as opposed to what we now call "school biology." Constructivism Classroom activities in Biology Learning Knowledge is constructed by the learner, not received. How does knowledge construction (i.e. learning) take place? Learners come to biology learning with existing ideas about many natural phenomena? What ideas do learners bring to biology classes and what is the nature of these ideas? Each individual has a unique set of ideas. How much commonality is there between learner‘s ideas in biology? The learners‘ existing ideas have consequences for the learning of biology. How do learners‘ ideas interact with teaching? It is possible to teach biology more effectively if account is taken of the learner‘s existing ideas. How should constructivism teachers teach biology? There are a number of ways by which teachers can come to know about the previous knowledge of students. Some exercises are mentioned in this section: 1. Concept maps. In the study of Biology, the ability to build interrelationships among concepts and related topics, and to relate newly acquired knowledge to prior knowledge, is crucial to the understanding of biological concepts and how the systems work together to bring about a coordinated response. Concept maps, diagrams and other graphic organizers are useful tools to illustrate the links between concepts and topics [3, 11]. 2. Use of newspaper articles in making T-charts. Tell students to bring newspaper articles about science. List the topics of the articles on the board as the students give a 30 second summary of their article. From this list choose 5-6 topics which are relevant for them and discuss these T-charts either in the construction of the concept maps or can understand their previous knowledge to initiate discussions in the class. 3. Scenarios. You are discussing homeostasis in living organisms. The students are now part of a multi-disciplinary team put together to design the perfect animal that can survive and reproduce successfully under the following conditions: an environment that is very hot and dry during the day, but turns cold and windy at night, and that has many fast and aggressive predators. In their design of this animal, they should consider integument, body support, reproductive strategy, excretion and mode of locomotion [4, 19]. 4. Graphs. After studying human growth, ask students to draw a graph of average growth after birth showing the relationship between heights (in cm.) and age (years). Once they have made this graph then tell them to plot a graph of male and female comparative growth rates showing the relationship between change in height (cm/year) and age (years).This graphical representation helps in better understanding and interpretation. 5. Brainstorming. When reviewing thermoregulation, ask students to come up with five ways in which snakes can prevent overheating on a hot summer day. This exercise helps in developing thinking skills, structuring and restructuring of conceptual knowledge. 6. Observations/Predictions. When you are about to explain the hormonal control of female reproductive system, show an illustration of hormonal control of female reproductive system and ask students to make a list of six observations. Thus, constructivism method claims that we have no access to an objective truth and that all knowledge is subjective and dependent on the learner. From the constructivism perspective, science is not the search for truth. It is a process that assists us to make sense of our world. Using the constructivism method, teaching biology becomes more like the biology that biologists do - it is an active, social process of making sense of experiences. It is an enjoyable activity and the role of the teacher is very challenging[5, 58]. Learning in classrooms is facilitated by well designed activities. These activities offer the opportunity to examine the problem from a variety of perspectives and also to collaborate. Listening to the multiple views on the subject makes the understanding better. Through different classroom activities, students get an opportunity to reflect and build on and consolidate existing knowledge. Educating students to be effective learners is an important priority in establishing environments conducive to effective learning of biology.
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