Tashkent Medical Academy

Номер: 5-3
Год: 2017
Страницы: 99-102
Журнал: Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и естественных наук

Ключевые слова

typolic qualities, innovations, portfolio, case - stage, self - monitoring, tutor, adventure, practice - oriented methods, типоличностные качества, инновации, портфолио, кейс - стади, самомониторинг, тьютор, приключенческие, практико-ориентированные методы

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Аннотация к статье

В данной статье уделяется особое внимание инновационным технологиям в системе образования, особенно методам «кейс - стади», методу проектов, «портфолио», их внедрению и применению, использованию в сфере образования.

Текст научной статьи

Today, in the conditions of modernization of the education system, more and more demands are being placed on the professional training of specialists. The social order to the education system is associated with the formation of graduates of typolastic qualities that would be adequate to the situation of dynamic changes, would allow them to be active builders of society and realize themselves in it, be competitive in the labor market. To solve these problems, remaining within the framework of only traditional pedagogical approaches, is not possible. The implementation of these priority requirements is promoted by pedagogical innovations. The use of innovative technologies takes on special significance in the preparation of students of pedagogical specialties in connection with the fact that graduates in their future activity will have to turn to the use of innovative technologies, to search for new didactic techniques and techniques in the process of professional activity. So, innovations in educational activities are the use of new knowledge, techniques, approaches, technologies to obtain results in the form of educational services that differ in social and market demand. Thus, in pedagogical practice a certain system of innovative educational technologies has developed, including: distance learning methodology and technology, case method, portfolio method, project method, electronic testing. The introduction of the latest information and communication technologies in education requires an in-depth analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of using multimedia complexes in the learning process. Of particular relevance are the studies of methodological possibilities, which are opened by the use of information technologies in social and humanitarian education. Currently, the world trend of education involves the transition of the learning process to a new technological level with the mandatory use of information technology. The need to use information technologies in education (in particular, in the teaching of social and humanitarian disciplines) is dictated by several circumstances. To them, first of all, it is necessary to attribute the fundamental civilizational changes of the last third of the twentieth century. Information technologies in education allow solving fundamentally new didactic tasks, their application provides for improving the quality and effectiveness of teaching. The use of computer networks, electronic educational environments involves the development of non-standard pedagogical practices, both in specific subject disciplines, and in the intersubjective space of the educational process, which includes the research work of students. Summarizing the experience of the development of computer educational technologies, it can be noted that teachers have sufficient pedagogical efficiency: they provide an interactive mode in the process of solving various cognitive tasks, are equipped with built-in directories or have access to such resources in the communication environment. Provide: modeling data, issuing individual tasks, conduct operational and ongoing testing on the basis of a special bank of changing questions and answers. They provide for interruption and continuation of work, evaluate the work of the student, taking into account the number of questions, mistakes and repeated mistakes, store the results of the academic work for both the teacher and the student. This allows us to formulate an approximate list of didactic requirements for modern teaching technologies. They should: - provide each student the opportunity to learn by an optimal, individual program, taking into full consideration his cognitive abilities, motives, propensities and other qualities. Optimize the content of the academic discipline, preserving and enriching the knowledge included in the state program; - to optimize the correlation of theoretical and practical training of future specialists, to intensify the learning process; - Reduce the mental and physiological burden of students. The method "Case" is used relatively recently, although it was developed in foreign pedagogy quite a long time ago. The case-method has its roots in the Harvard Business School (HBS) in Boston. Teachers of this university in 1908 refused, based on the experience of casuistry of lawyers, from traditional lectures. Instead, they put the discussion of specific cases of economic practice at the center of training. Since then, HBS has collected a wealth of case studies and developed this method to an independent learning concept. Therefore, the method of studying a specific case in the literature is often called the Harvard method. The essence of the method is quite simple: for the organization of training, descriptions of specific situations are used. Students are offered to comprehend the real life situation, the description of which simultaneously reflects not only any practical problem, but also updates a certain set of knowledge that must be learned when solving this problem. The problem itself does not have unique solutions. This method exists in several variants. Case - Study - Method. This option is characterized by a large amount of material, since in addition to describing the case, all the information material that participants can use is also provided. The main emphasis in the work on the case is made on the analysis and synthesis of the problem and on the decision making. Case - Problem - Method. In this case, problems are explicitly called in the course of the case description. Thus, there is more time to develop solution options and a detailed discussion of solutions. Case - Incident - Method. This option is different in that the focus is on the process of obtaining information. For this reason, the case is often not displayed in full with spaces. Although this form of work requires a lot of time, it can be considered as particularly close to practice, because in practice it is information acquisition that makes up an essential part of the entire decision-making process. Stated - Problem - Method. A characteristic feature of this option is the provision of ready-made solutions and their justifications. The task of students is, first of all, to familiarize themselves with the structure of the decision-making process in practice, to critically evaluate the decisions made and, if possible, to develop alternative solutions. Next, consider the method of projects. The method of projects, the organization of training, in which students acquire knowledge in the planning and implementation of practical assignments - projects. It is based on theoretical concepts of pragmatic pedagogy; Detailed coverage was received in the writings of American educators J. and E. Dewey, W. H. Kilpatrick and E. Collins. The classification of methods of projects, proposed in the training manual ES, is singled out. Polat, M.Yu. Bukharkina. It can be applied to projects used in the teaching of any academic discipline. In this classification, according to several criteria, the following types of projects are distinguished: By the method that dominates the project: research, creative, adventure, game, information, practice-oriented. 2. By the nature of the coordination of the project: with explicit coordination, with hidden coordination. 3. By the nature of contacts: internal (regional), international. 4. By the number of participants: personal (individual), paired, group. 5. By duration: short-term, medium-term, long-term. The main goal of the project method is to provide students with the opportunity to independently acquire knowledge in the process of solving practical problems or problems that require the integration of knowledge from different subject areas. The teacher in the project is assigned the role of coordinator, expert, additional source of information. At the heart of the project method is the development of cognitive skills of students, the ability to independently design their knowledge, skills to navigate in the information space, the development of critical thinking. Portfolio method. Portfolio in translation from Italian means "folder with documents", "specialist folder". At present, the concept of "portfolio" is most often correlated with the sphere of education. In fact, in the broad sense of this concept, the portfolio method (performanceportfolioorportfolicassessment) is applicable to any practice-producing activity. Thus, the first basis for distinguishing the types of portfolio in the university by types of practical-productive activities: educational or professional. And then by type: individual or group. Portfolio as a technology is a modern educational technology, based on the method of authentic assessment of the results of educational and professional activities. Authentic assessment is a kind of evaluation that is applied, first of all, in practice-oriented activity and involves assessing the formation of individual skills and abilities in conditions of placing it in a situation as close as possible to the requirements of real life - everyday or professional. The basic principles of the technology "Student Portfolio" include the following: 1. Self - evaluation of the results (both intermediate and final) of mastering certain types of educational, scientific, creative activity. 2. Systematic and regular self-monitoring. The student independently monitors the results of his activities in his chosen field, selects the most interesting works, replenishes the content of his portfolio. 3. Pedagogical support of the student from the teacher, class teacher (curator, tutor); 4. Structuring and consistency of the materials presented in the individual portfolio. 5. Accuracy and aesthetics of portfolio design. 6. Integrity, thematic completeness of materials. 7. The visibility and validity of the presentation "Student Portfolio". Portfolio is a purposeful collection of the best works and results of students (professionals) that demonstrates their efforts, progress, achievements in one or more fields of activity and is an additional way of assessing students. Electronic testing also applies to innovative educational technologies and is used in our country. But as the experience of a number of countries has shown, examinations in the form of text tests, that is, questions that require a choice of answers from two to four options, are not suitable for testing any knowledge. With the help of such tests it is possible to check the speed of reaction, the speed of assimilation of information and the adoption on the basis of its solution - properties that are important for a number of professions. But you can not check the knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry and a number of other subjects, in which it is important to find out how and what the examining student thinks. In teaching humanities and economic disciplines with the help of tests, you can check the intermediate result of the learned information, but not the student's vision of the subject as a whole. The role of information technology is growing rapidly in all spheres of social life, so there is a need to increase the most advanced and effective software and technology educational solutions. From the foregoing it follows that information technology is an additional way of education in the field of teaching humanitarian and economic disciplines, as they improve the quality of instruction, and also shorten the time of studying the subject. As for humanitarian disciplines, a problem arises here about the uncomprehending aspects of many humanitarian projects. Some use a formal approach to measuring the effectiveness of educational technologies, taking into account their introduction into practice. In the field of humanitarian knowledge, the introduction of such innovations requires caution and thoughtfulness, as the assimilation of humanitarian knowledge and the teaching of humanitarian disciplines have their own specifics. The use of information and communication technologies makes it possible to significantly accelerate the process of information retrieval and transmission, to transform the nature of mental activity, to automate human labor.

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