Karaganda State University

Номер: 10-2
Год: 2015
Страницы: 7-9
Журнал: Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и естественных наук

Ключевые слова

integration, globalization, international, union, world. Ключевые слова: интеграция, глобализация, международный, союз, мир

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Аннотация к статье

The article discusses the issue of current state and trends of economic integration and globalization.

Текст научной статьи

History of the world shows that initially the socialization of production developed within individual States in the form of joint industrial activity of many people, labour collectives working on one or several enterprises. Subsequently, the socialization of production is beyond the scope of individual countries and acquired an international character. Initially, international socialization of production or the internationalization of production has a formal character, i.e., the country participate in international division of labour, but the production costs of the same goods in individual countries are not the same, and sometimes very different. Plus, the boundaries between them are closed for the free movement of goods, labour, capital, and different (customs and other) barriers between them are kept. In the second half of the twentieth century, many countries began to shift from a formal to a new period of international socialization of production, which got the name of the integration process. The basis for the development of the real integration process was based on the signing of the Treaty of Rome (1957) regarding the establishment of the European economic community (EEC). The contract was immediately provided for a phased reduction of customs duties on the importation of goods, creation of conditions for the free movement of capital, goods and services. The main goal, which forced the countries of Western Europe to unite their efforts, is that their economic integration was seen as an important means of overcoming the socio-economic fragmentation, effective development of the economy of the member States of the EEC, which individually did not have sufficient capacity for the implementation of all tasks. National economies have long been a part of a dynamic system of world economy. It is clear today that the more the country is included in the system of global economic ties, the more precisely determined its course of interaction with the rest of the world, the higher the welfare of society and its citizens. Therefore, today it is necessary to know the regularities of the development of the world economy, measures of success in some countries and the crisis state of the others. Stages of international economic integration Preferential trade agreements is an agreement on the delivery of exceptional and preemptive rights of the sale of certain types of goods. On the first level, when the countries do the first steps towards rapprochement, preferential trade agreements are signed between them. Such agreements can be signed either bilaterally between individual states, or between the existing integration grouping and individual country or group of countries. In accordance with these agreements countries provide more favourable treatment to each other than they provide to third countries. In a sense, this is a departure from the principle of most favored nation, which is sanctioned by the GATT/WTO in the framework of the so-called interim agreements leading to the formation of the customs Union. Preferential agreements, providing for the preservation of national customs tariffs of each of the signatory countries should be considered not as a beginner, but as a preparatory stage of the integration process, which becomes such, only when it gets more advanced forms. No inter-state bodies for management of preferential agreements is created. Complete integration Full integration is a form of international economic integration. Full integration is possible, if economic measures are added with political measures: creation of supranational bodies of management, liquidation of state borders and other Implies the transfer of the national governments of the greater part of its functions to supranational bodies. Conditions: • overall tax system; • availability of unified standards; • uniform labor law. Conclusion International economic integration is a feature of the current stage of world economy. In the end of XX century it became a powerful tool for accelerated and balanced development of regional economies and the international competitiveness of countries participating in the integration groupings. International economic integration is the process of accretion of the economies of the neighbouring countries in a single economic complex, based on sustainable economic ties between their companies. Classical forms of international economic integration: free trade area, shopping restrictions between the countries of the integration Association are discarded, and above all, all customs duties are reduced or cancelled ; customs Union, when along with the abolition of the restrictive trade a single customs tariff and the single foreign trade policy are established in respect of third countries; the common market with the signing of the agreement, covering the "four freedoms" crossing of frontiers for goods, services, capital and people; economic and monetary Union, when agreements on free trade zone, customs Union and common market are complemented by agreements on the overall economic and monetary policy, and the supranational institutions of governance integration Union are introduced. Further development and improvement of the forms of international economic integration, possibly can lead to political Union, i.e. to the transformation of the integration unions in the Federal state with all the ensuing consequences, including the formation of the Central bodies of even greater power and authority than the supranational institutions of governance.

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