The Karaganda state university named after E.A.Buketov
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
foreign language teaching, techniques of foreign language teaching, communicative technique, project technique, intensive technique, active technique
In the article an attempt to give the comparative characteristic of modern techniques of foreign language teaching is undertaken. According to requirements of the modern society focused on competitiveness of the future experts there is a necessity of search of the new approach to projecting of the purposes and results of education, thus as tool means of achievement of the purposes essentially new teaching techniques.
The history of teaching foreign languages totals centuries. Especially roughly this field of education started developing with the end of the XIX century when, owing to known social and historical processes, there was a need for a large number of the people knowing one or several foreign languages. Many modern techniques are communicatively focused, and one of their major purposes is teaching in communication and mastering speech means. Each of techniques uses thus different means, methods and relies on certain principles. That is, each of the techniques has distinctive peculiar features. The very first peculiar feature of communicative technique, which founder E.I.Passov is considered, that the purpose of teaching is not acquisition of a foreign language, but «foreign-language culture» which includes the informative, educational, developing and educational aspect. Also they include satisfaction of personal cognitive interests of the trainee in any of spheres of the activity. The last factor provides additional motivation to learning foreign language from trainees that are not interested in it [1, 34]. The second peculiar feature of a communicative technique is mastering all aspects of foreign-language culture through communication. Communicative technique for the first time put forward the statement that communication needs to be trained only through communication that became one of characteristic features for modern techniques. In the communicative technique of teaching communication carries out functions of teaching, knowledge, development and education. The communicative technique also includes mastering nonverbal means of communication: such as gestures, mimicry, poses, distance that is an additional factor when storing lexical and any other material. Efficiency of the project technique which was founded by E.S.Polat, is more provided with intellectual and emotional pithiness included in teaching the subjects. Also it should be noted about their gradual complication. But distinctive feature is their concreteness. From the very beginning of teaching participation of trainees in substantial and difficult communication, without simplification and primitivism is supposed. Novelty of approach is that the trainee is given the chance to project the content of communication, since the first lesson. Especially important line is that trainees have opportunity to speak about the ideas, the plans. Thanks to work on the project the sufficient language base is created. It is obvious here that peculiar features of communicative and projective techniques have a lot of similar, they are created according to the identical principles, but they are applied in various ways of teaching. In the first case teaching is based on use of situations, in the second - on use of projects. Let’s consider specificity of an intensive technique. This technique is based on the psychological term «suggestion». It is also the first peculiar feature of an intensive technique. According to G.Lozanov, is the means, generally indirect, communicative impact on the person in the awake state creating conditions for activization of reserve opportunities of the personality [2, 9]. The ideas of G.Lozanov were adapted and developed by the Soviet teacher G.A.Kitaygorodskaya and the psychologist A.N.Leontyev who became leading experts by intensive techniques of teaching foreign languages. Use of a «suggestion» allows to pass or remove different psychological barriers at trainees in the following way. The teacher conducts lessons taking into account psychological factors, emotional influence, using logical forms of education [3, 35]. Another distinctive factor is active use of role-playing games. Specificity of intensive teaching is that educational communication keeps all social and psychological processes of communication. Role communication is at the same time both game, and educational, and speech activity. But thus, if from pupils’ viewpoint the role communication is a game activity or natural communication when the motive is not in the content of activity, but out of it, from the teacher's viewpoint role communication is a form of the organization of educational process. All above-mentioned is the very features of the intensive technique which more provide its efficiency. These specific moments are different from two previous techniques. These techniques are similar that consider necessary a condition of successful teaching collective work in the positive emotional atmosphere. Thus the intensive technique pays more attention to such kinds of activity as speaking and audition. To define efficiency of each of the considered techniques, it is necessary to allocate positive and negative sides of each of them. The communicative technique has a number of positive sides which have to be used actively during the work with it. First of all, it is the purpose of teaching that is not only acquisition of a foreign language, but teaching foreign-language culture as well. It is reached by equivalence and coherence of all aspects of teaching. Adhering to such installation, the teacher participates in formation of the trainee personality that is a positive side. Important factors are the interrelation and uniform development of all kinds of activity (speaking, audition, reading, writing) and creation of additional motivation, using interdisciplinary communication. But the most important positive sides became application of communication, as the main method of teaching a foreign language, and use of situations for its realization. We consider it necessary to note that the last two factors are characteristic and for other techniques considered in work. This technique has no pronounced negative features. Positive factors of intensive technique: - receiving results quickly. For the second day of lessons the trained communicate in a foreign language, using the speech cliches studied at the first lesson; - psychological bases of this technique (suggestion) which allow to create psychologically comfortable situation at the lessons, but also are used for more effective teaching. - the multifunctional exercises which are repeatedly mentioned earlier, and also very well large number of time given for activization of new vocabulary. For each cycle of lessons it is recommended to spend up to 20-24 hours, from them for activization of new material - 18-20 hours. In this method there is a number of disadvantages. For example, too large volume of the new material given for one presentation (150-200 new words, 30-50 speech cliches and some typical grammatical phenomena). Teaching in oral forms of communication: reading and audition, written forms of communication that become secondary that can't be allowed. The project technique of teaching a foreign language has no pronounced disadvantages, like a communicative technique. Thus, some positive features are characterized: mastering of project culture, problem character use, development of abilities to think creatively and independently, predict versions of the solution of the standing task. The grammar is given in the form of tables that considerably facilitates its assimilation and systematization by the trained. Thus the course is very interesting and fascinating as it widely uses so called ego-factor. The course itself is very interesting and exciting as it widely uses ego-factor. Analyzing the above-mentioned, it is possible to tell that the majority of modern techniques of teaching foreign languages are communicatively focused. One of their main signs is creativity of students. As for practical application of methods, at the present stage of development of methodology there is an integration of methods. It is possible to tell that formation of a complex technique which incorporates the best elements of different methods began.
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