Tashkent Medical Academy
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
discussion, the possibility of modern didactics, -pending, searching, analysis of practical situations, specific ideas, дискуссия, возможность, современная дидактика, рассмотрение, иследование, разбор практических ситуаций, конкретные идеи
В данной статье рассматривается как (групповые обсуждении) дискуссии позволяют максимально полно использовать опыт слушателей, способствуя лучшему усвоению изучаемого ими материала, как этот приём широко используется в других комплексных формах обучения.
Modern didactics of the university in the center of the educational process puts the student's activity. The teacher, in turn, relies on his own activity and independence. Modern educational technology is a system of activity of a teacher and students in the educational process, built on a specific idea in accordance with certain principles of organization and interrelations of goals, content, methods. For example - European education technologies provide for the study of the course independently, under the guidance of teachers. That, in turn, helps to form students' creative thinking, the ability to make generalizations, comparisons, conclusions, analyze, synthesis, etc., while students are brought up a sense of responsibility, dedication, practicality, friendliness, etc. In addition to European technology, with the light of the Bologna Process, there appeared series of other technologies. These are new information technologies, distance education, problem, cognitive and business games, and many others. In innovation, as in teaching technology, changes in the pedagogical system improve the flow and results of the educational process. Discussion (from the Latin "examination, research") is a collective discussion of any controversial or important issue with the aim of finding the truth or achieving a better understanding. In a sense, group discussions are rather a didactic device than a method of instruction. This technique is widely used in other complex forms of education (seminars, case studies, business and role plays). However, discussions or group discussions can be applied independently. For example, at the Harvard Business School, group discussions among listeners are the main method of teaching. Discussions on a given topic are held in small groups, students (from 4 to 10 people). Discussions make it possible to make maximum use of the experience of listeners, contributing to a better mastering of the material they study. This is the feature of group discussions: the teacher does not tell the listeners about how it should be, what is right, and the listeners develop evidence, justification of principles and approaches according to the scheme proposed by the teacher. For example, listeners are given a description of the conflict situation when the leader and the subordinate interact; Or the group is asked to find errors committed by the manager; Or indicate the qualities that distinguish a successful leader; Or the most important levers of influence on subordinates, available to the head and etc. To discuss the issues proposed for discussion. A certain amount of time is allocated (usually from 5 to 20 minutes), during which the group must prepare a reasoned deployed agent. For the discussion to be successful, participants must adhere to certain rules, which are usually set by the teacher. The rules for conducting group discussions are not enough to read out, write down on a blackboard / poster or hand out to listeners in the form of handouts. It is necessary to clearly explain what each requirement means and what each participant should do in order to comply with them. The teacher should closely monitor the work in the groups, and in those cases when he will notice any violations of the established rules or deviations from the normal course of the discussion on the merits, immediately point out to the listeners and help them, they will establish effective work. Among the topics for group discussions, preference should be given to those who, on the one hand, are closely related to the material being studied, and on the other, allow listeners to make the most of their personal practical experience. Group discussions are particularly effective for studying and working out complex material for perception, forming the right settings. This method provides good opportunities for feedback, reinforcement, practice, motivation and transfer. To stimulate discussion participants, the teacher can: - specify a specific discussion framework (for example, specify at least 10 errors); - Introduce rules for group discussion (for example, to speak out to everyone without exception by turns); - to propose a certain algorithm for developing a common opinion (for example, first each individually prepares his own variant for solving the problem in writing, and then these decisions are discussed in the group, and a general solution is worked out). Another way to intensify the discussion is to appoint a leader who will take the lead in the process of group discussion and presentation of the proposals developed. However, even if this is not done, this does not mean that the discussion will go uncontrollably. Experience shows that there is almost always a person in the group who is ready to take responsibility for the results of the group discussion. In the event that there are two leaders in the group, they begin to guide the course of the discussion at the expense of some division of responsibilities: either take turns in the role of leader, or one direct the discussion, and the other reports the results. If there are several leaders in the group, the struggle for leadership or personal qualities of individual listeners (the desire to win at any cost, the inability to understand others' opinions, assessments, etc.) can provoke conflict between them. In such cases, the intervention of the teacher is necessary, since conflictual relations in the group sharply reduce the effectiveness of group work. Sometimes it is useful to appoint the leaders of the discussion in turn. The teacher can use the principle of priority when, in discussing various issues, the role of a leader whose tasks is to guide the discussion process, monitor the established rules for conducting discussions (not interrupt, observe the established rules, speak in turn, etc.) and present solutions and proposals, Developed by the group, will be performed by different people. It is necessary to note the specific features of the female audience (according to the author's observations), to which one should be prepared: - more emotional and verbose; - they often say everything at the same time and at the same time manage to understand each other; - there is no desire to end the conversation with a constructive solution: they simply "let the steam out", spoke out, eased the soul; - Unfortunately, women are more despondent and unbelieving that they have something to change positively. Rules for conducting a group discussion (recommendations for participants): - Before starting the discussion, clearly formulate the problem 'the subject of discussion. Achieve a common understanding of the problem under discussion! -Talk in turns! It is necessary to exclude interruptions: if someone started to speak. Then all the others must remain silent until he finishes. - Listen attentively, trying to understand the essence of the opinion or suggestion of the speaker. When a person is silent, this does not necessarily mean that he is listening attentively at this time. He can just wait his turn to speak. The indicator of attentive hearing is the ability to retell the opinion, the position of the speaker in his own words. - Categorically it is forbidden to discuss a new topic without having finished discussing the old one! - Eliminate value judgments, especially negative ones, which hurt the speaker's self-esteem. It is inadmissible to pronounce the words "bad", "absurd", "silly", "illiterate", "unprofessional", etc., during the discussion. - Do not go on personalities! Criticism and whether to discuss it is possible only offers, an idea, and in any case not personal features of the speaker. Exclude the phrase "Are you completely deaf?" - Criticism should be constructive. Do not say: "this will not work," "you misunderstand the task," better work for a supplement. Attention should not be focused on errors and misses, but on how to make a beam! Not how to improve the proposal, find in it a rational grain that can be developed, improved and supplemented. "Be reasonable!" You should not get involved in a dispute if it is a subject you do not know, and, conversely, you have to express your opinion if the subject matter is discussed by the Sign and try to convince the audience of your rightfulness. - Respect and tolerate the opinions of others! Do not kill the idea "in the bud", but try to find in it a rational grain and develop it. - If you were given little time to speak, then speak with theses, without justifications and arguments. Usually three minutes is enough to express 5-7 ideas. - Do not forget the right strategy of the dispute - to help each other in the search for truth. After all, the most important thing is that the amount of good in the world increases! Requirements for the lead discussion or discussion: It should be educated, intelligent, respected and respected person, impartial, aware of the subject of the upcoming conversation, the laws of communication and logic. He must have two more important qualities of character: openness to the new and courage. Advice to the leading discussion: If there are many people unfamiliar to each other in the audience, the presenter should introduce himself and introduce the present. In the opening speech it is desirable to adjust the audience to productive work, it is appropriate to joke, to create a relaxed, but business atmosphere. If there is an "irreconcilable" audience and an acute discussion is expected, it is appropriate to say that like-minded people gathered here, that truth is more precious to all than personal prestige, that we see prestige in finding truth and justice, that all those present are interested in the organization's prosperity and etc. Assure the audience that everyone will be given the opportunity to speak, within the limits of the rules and any opinion will be accepted with gratitude. It is necessary to understand that the discussion is not led by robots, but by people, who are overwhelmed by emotions. Therefore, you must have a pair of witty jokes, "soothing" jokes. It is better to "extinguish" passions in time by the world than to be on the ashes.
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