Secondary Music School-Studio under Baku Academy of Music
ISSN (печатный вариант): 2073-0071
Uzeyir Hajibeyli, national fret, mugham, “Bayati-Shiraz”, fret system, young pianist, Fikrat Amirov
This article is on information about mugham music, which is one of the main parts of Azerbaijan national music, as well as, the role of national frets in the professional composers' activity. La tonic is presented by personal arrangement on the basis of "Bayati-Shiraz" mugham in the 2nd Republican Festival "National fret system of Uzeyir Hajibeyli in teaching repertoire of the young musicians" dedicated to research on the national fret system.
Music culture of Azerbaijan developing for thousands of years had a rich professional folk music traditions till the development of professional composer school and transmitted from generation to generation by word of mouth. Mugham is one of this musical heritage. In addition to spesific parts, large-scaled mughams consist of "reng", which is mainly dance-like instrumental and song-like "tasnif" episodes. Main Azerbaijani mughams are "Rast", "Shur", “Segah”, "Chahargah", "Bayati-Shiraz", "Shushtar" and "Humayun". Each mugham is followed by fret and part related to it . Mughams are classified like this at "Bases of Azerbaijan National Folk Music" scientific book by Uzeyir Hajibeyli, founder of the first opera in the East and founder of Azerbaijani professional music. "Shur" inspires cheerful, lyrical mood, "Segah"-lyrical love, "Shushtar"-sorrow, "Chahargah"-feeling, excitement, fight, "Bayati-Shiraz"- sadness, "Humayun"- deep sorrow, "Rast"- victory and joy. The premiere of the opera "Leyli and Majnun", the first opera in the East, took place in Baku on January 25, 1908 was composed on the basis of national mughams by great composer U. Hajibeyli. Only he - Azerbaijan composer U.Hajibeyli developed a completely new style of music combining national (mugham) and classical (Europe) music. Fikrat Amirov, composer, created new genre - symphonic mugham from the combination of mugham and Europe symphonic mugham. Symphonic mughams of "Shur", "Kurd-Ovshari", "Gulustan Bayati-Shiraz" composed by him and "Rast" symphonic mughams by Niyazi Hajibeyov-Taghizade opened new pages not only in our music history, but also in the Europe. Composer Chahangir Chahangirov created first chorus mugham in his "Azad" opera. G.Garayev, S.Hajibeyov, A.Malikov, Kh.Mirzazade, N.Aliverdibeyov, Sh.Akhundova, F.Alizade benefited from our national music in their works. Azerbaijani composers provided the integration of mugham into more new music genres. Composer Tofig Guliyev brought national mugham frets into pop music, Vagif Mustafazade, jazzman, one of brilliant pianists of XX century, became a founder of opening new page in jazz genre by combining mugham and jazz. Azerbaijani mugham was added to the list of UNESCO's intangible heritage and confirmed the importance of this unique musical landmark. Today national fret system created by U.Hajibeyli is taught at secondary music schools around republic . Baku Academy of Music and Secondary Music School-Studio under Baku Academy of Music have a special role on it. For two times Republican Festival named "National fret system of Uzeyir Hajibeyli in teaching repertoire of the young musicians" had been successfully held. The main purpose of the festival was to inspire scientific- professional approach to national music for young artists. Young artists were able to present their personal arrangements. Zarrin Shukurova, award winner of "piano" nomination in the 2nd Republican Festival "National fret system of Uzeyir Hajibeyli in teaching repertoire of the young musicians", presented and performed her own "la tonic" arrangement based on "Bayati-Shiraz" mugham in this festival. J. S. Bach, J. Brams, N. Rimsky- Korsakov and other great composers have given wide attention to folk music, as well as studied and noted the folk music which is the source of composers' eternal inspiration. U. Hajibeyli and M. Magomaev, his close friend and partner, also studied the basics of folk music throughout their lives. Our national music has been extensively analyzed in the work of "Basics of Azerbaijani Folk Music" by U. Hajibeyli, published in 1946. This scientific work is an important and necessary literature for researchers who are researching national music of Azerbaijan, music teachers and national music learners. Numerous textbooks have been developed by musicians, composers, pianists and educators to make even more convenient and comfortable mastering the theoretical foundations of the national fret. F. Sh. Badalbayli and T. A. Seyidov, professors of BAM, have developed and published "national fret thinking on the basis of scientific system of U. Hajibeyli" development program for pupils and studens of musical schools in 2012. Folk songs and dances on the basis of rast, chahargah, bayati-shiraz on national fret system are presented in the table below. National songs National dances Rast Hey, Dilbar (Ay Dilbər) Azerbaijan Lover coming (Yar gəlir) Brilliant Lady Sona (Sona xanım) Darchini Lover coming (Yar gəlir) Asgarani I felt hurt cause of you (Küsmüşəm səndən) Bayati-Shiraz Hey mercy hunter (Aman ovçu) Qazakhi I have splashed water on streets (Küçələrə su səpmişəm) Nalbaki Don't talk that way, my cruel lover, (Onu demə zalım yar) Chahargah Come on, beauty of countries (Gəl ay ellər gözəli) Shalakho A pair of black eyes (Budur bir cüt qara göz) Shur Hey, mountains (A dağlar) Atlanma Apple in market (Bazarda alma) Baku Black-browed mascara (Qara qaşın vəsməsi) Rose (Qızılgül) Shawl (Yaylıq ) Cidir Segah Mummy (Anacan) Siblings (Cüt bacı) Canary bird (Sarı bulbul) Gitgilida Lover will be our guest (Yar bizə qonaq gələcək) Geshengi Partridge (Kəklik) Tarakama Shushtar At the threshold (Eşik başında) Uzundara You are my beauty (Gözəlim sənsən) Yuzbir I Entered to My Lover's Garden (Girdim yarın bağçasına) Almazi Humayun Oral traditional professional classifications and colors of Humayun Within the framework of the festival dedicated to the learning of national fret system, participiants may present their performances developed on national fret and their works composed on national fret in composer nominations. Note of performance by Zarrin Shukur Shukurova, participiant, performed in festival on "bayati-Shiraz" mugham is presented above. In addition, note of "Holiday March" and "Little rabit march" plays composed on national fret by her are also presented in this article. “Little rabbit march" and "Holiday March plays were composed on rast fret of “do tonic” an chahargah fret of “re tonic” respectively. The little rabbits march Shukurova Zarrin The holiday march Shukurova Zarrin
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